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The Raga – Mind altering sounds from India

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In Indian classical music a raga (Sanskrit = color, tone) is the totality of a pattern or patterns of five to nine notes that provides a structure for improvisation. When improvising on a raga, the performer is free to change the pitch, volume, tone, timbre, tempo and number of notes but usually begins and ends on the same note, as indicated by the particular raga.¹

Ragas are often regarded as vehicles for spiritual meditation but they also recall, in an abstract and condensed form, epic stories and actual events from Indian history—e.g. the archetypal motif of arriving home after a lengthy war and finding out that one’s lover has died.

Accordingly, many see the raga as a tool for transcendence. For others it is also sublimely emotional.

While studying in India I had the opportunity to hear some masters like Ravi Shankar and Ali Akbar Khan play the raga. At one gathering, some Western ‘foreign’ students (as they were indelicately called) played first. I thought they were quite talented. But when the Indian master – in this case Ali Akbar Khan – played afterward, I was amazed at the difference. Khan captivated the audience with a true authority that the international students just couldn’t muster up.

Akira Asakura Raga in the Evening @Hindi concert ③ via Flickr

Akira Asakura Raga in the Evening @Hindi concert ③ via Flickr

These days, I don’t listen to that type of music as it takes me into a zone that I am no longer comfortable with. Let’s call it expansive transcendence. That was okay in India during the latter 1980s when time was slow and many local people seemed halfway in another world. But in the fast, focused Western world listening to Indian classical music affects me like taking mind altering substances that I don’t enjoy nor want. Sort of like a spiritual alcohol.²

Along these lines the Swiss analytical psychologist Carl Jung warned against Westerners embracing Eastern forms of spirituality. He felt that the Western psyche could face serious dangers if overwhelmed by what he saw as uniquely Asian archetypal forms. Many today would laugh at this, of course. But we must remember that Jung wrote well before yoga was trendy and international travel, common. And in Jung’s defense, I should add that he was rarely a black and white thinker. Jung also wrote that Asia possibly was “at bottom” of the paradigm shift that the West was just beginning to grasp.³

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¹ Wikipedia adds some interesting details:

Although notes are an important part of rāga practice, they alone do not make the rāga. A rāga is more than a scale, and many rāgas share the same scale. The underlying scale may have four, five, six or seven tones, called swaras. Rāgas that have four swaras are called surtara (सुरतर) rāgas; those with five swaras are called audava (औडव) rāgas; those with six, shaadava (षाडव); and with seven, sampurna (संपूर्ण, Sanskrit for ‘complete’). The number of swaras may differ in the ascending and descending like rāga Bhimpalasi which has five notes in the ascending and seven notes in descending or Khamaj with six notes in the ascending and seven in the descending. Rāgas differ in their way how to ascend or descend. Those that do not follow the strict ascending or descending order of swaras are called vakra (वक्र) (‘crooked’) rāgas…

It is important to note that in Indian classical music there are seven natural notes (Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni) and five half-notes. The four komal (flat) swaras are Re, Ga, Dha and Ni. The only one which can be sharp (tivre) is Ma. That means that any instrument tuned in a tempered way should actually not be used for this music since it is to be considered “out of tune”. In rāga Mārva, for instance, the komal Re is a little higher than it is in other rāgas (emhpasis added)

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raga

² Even though I don’t listen to them, I’ve kept all my old Indian classical tapes, stowed away in a bag in the basement. Come to think of it, I’ve kept practically all of my old music.

³ That last line is a bit confusing to me. I have a tendency to try to straighten out Jung’s thinking. But when I do it usually ends up like my thinking, not Jung’s. So I think I’ll just leave it as is.

Related » Mantra, Orpheus

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Comte Henri de Saint-Simon – His concern for the poor shines above everything else

Louis de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon

Louis de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon (1760-1825) or, more commonly, Saint-Simon is one of those figures who comes up regularly in sociology courses, especially so-called “classical” or “classical theory” courses.¹

Until writing this entry, I knew little about him. But I felt he was important because so many books and professors (the better ones, anyhow) mention him in passing.

Looking over Wikipedia this morning to update my 2009 entry, Saint-Simon turns out to be quite interesting.

Born in Paris as a French Aristocrat, he spent some time in America, fighting under George Washington in the siege of Yorktown. Back in Europe, he took up the cause of the poor, which lead his being called the founder of French socialism.

He supported the French Revolution but was put in jail during the Reign of Terror because of unwarranted suspicions that he was a counter-revolutionary. Luckily for him, he was released from prison in 1794 before literally losing his head. By this time French currency was devalued, which left him rich. But he was cheated out of his fortune by his business partner.

After an unhappy marriage that ended in a year, he wrote and tried to recover his lost fortune without success. He then spent time in a sanatorium. Ten years later, discouraged by his lack of influence on the world, he attempted suicide. According to the story, shooting himself six times in the head didn’t kill him, although he did become blind in one eye.

Nederlands: Portret van Claude Henri de Rouvro...

Portrait of Claude Henri de Rouvroy from the first quarter of the 19th century (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Relatives helped him out but Saint-Simon lived his final years in abject poverty. Perhaps this had something to do with his earlier concern for the poor.²

Saint-Simon reacted against the brutality of the French Revolution and envisioned a society where science and technology would guide the workings of religion and politics. He disliked government intervention in the economy, making his approach differ from how we usually understand “socialism.”

Concerning religion, he believed in a divine power but wanted to strip away the dogmas and routines of both Protestant and Catholic Christianity to get to the core of Jesus’ message as he saw it. For him, theory wasn’t done for mere pleasure or, as a twisted professor I had allegedly once said, for a “paycheck.” For Saint-Simon, theory and practice should go hand in hand to alleviate suffering and elevate all peoples to the highest possible good.

Saint-Simon’s writings remain influential in sociology. He had particular impact on the political views of Auguste Comte (17981857), especially with regard to the concept of progress. Comte in turn influenced Emile Durkheim, now hailed as one of the founding fathers of sociology.

Tumba de Saint Simon by Cosmovisión / Juan Luis Sotillo

Tumba de Saint Simon by Cosmovisión / Juan Luis Sotillo

¹ Sociologists tend to join the dots for us, telling us what is important according to how they see things today. The word “classical” should be taken critically too. It’s full of connotations about legitimacy and importance.

² If the soul is beyond space and time, as some mystics tell us, quite possibly Saint-Simon’s future state influenced his younger concerns. You won’t find this idea among the rank and file of psychologists and psychiatrists in the 21st century, but I think it’s quite possible and hopefully an idea that future theorists will pursue.


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Parsees (or Parsis)

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To go with AFP story ‘Pakistan-unrest-religion-minorities-Parsi’, FEATURE by Issam AHMED This photograph taken on February 25, 2015, shows Pakistani Parsi (Zoroastrian) priests Jehangir Noshik (L) and Jal Dinshaw (R) sitting at their prayer place in Karachi. For more than 1,000 years, Parsis have thrived in South Asia but an ageing population and emigration to the West driven by instability in Pakistan means the tiny community of ‘fire worshippers’ could could soon be consigned to the country’s history books. AFP PHOTO / Rizwan TABASSUM

The Parsees (Parsis) are descendants of the Zoroastrians who fled from Persia (now Iran) for about 200 years between the 8th to 10th centuries CE to avoid persecution by the Arab Muslim invaders of Persia¹; they settled around Mumbai (formerly Bombay), India.

According to Wikipedia:²

The word پارسیان, pronounced “Parsian”, i.e. “Parsi” in the Persian language literally means Persian.[14] Persian is the official language of modern Iran, which was formerly known as Persia, and the Persian language‘s endonym is Farsi, an arabization of the word Parsi

¹ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parsi

² Op. cit.

Related » Adherents of all Religions, Ahriman, Avesta, Gabars, Zarathustra, Zoroastrianism


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Sargon

Image via memory-alpha.wikia.com

In the original Star Trek TV series Sargon is a forceful, intelligent mind residing in a glowing orb. Sargon abducts Captain Kirk and plans to inhabit his body.¹

This fictional Sargon is named after two ancient Sargons who walked this Earth. Sargon I was a Akkadian king (2400 BCE) said to have built Babylon. Sargon II was an Assyrian king (around 700 BCE). Both were successful militarists.

More and more people are saying that the Star Trek franchise has created something of a modern myth. One of the ingredients for Star Trek‘s lasting success is the recasting of elements from history, myth and legend within an optimistic, socially progressive future.

King Sargon II and a Dignatary by Sharon Mollerus

King Sargon II and a Dignatary by Sharon Mollerus via Flickr

Depth psychologists and cultural theorists say that the use of history in storytelling sets off a subconscious resonance, giving a story charm, fascination and, as religious studies scholars would put it, numinous allure.

The use of Sargon in this episode is a good example of calling up the past, injecting it into the present while imagining the future.

¹ Excellent outline of the story » http://memory-alpha.wikia.com/wiki/Return_to_Tomorrow_%28episode%29


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Sophists

 

Early Athenian Coin, an "owl"

Early Athenian Coin, an “owl” (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The Sophists were independent Greek public speakers of the 5th century BCE, teaching for a fee about politics, philosophy and rhetoric.

Protagoras is usually regarded as the first with Gorgias being another prominent sophist. Wikipedia also lists Prodicus, Hippias, Thrasymachus, Lycophron, Callicles, Antiphon, and Cratylus.

Plato portrays them in his dialogues as foils for the sober, sound argumentation of Socrates.

In the most general sense sophists are usually depicted as denying the existence of ultimate reality and morality in favor of worldly pleasures derived from the senses.

Likewise, they’re often said to reject the Greek gods and advocate the perfection of humanity.

English: The School of Athens (detail). Fresco...

The School of Athens (detail). Fresco, Stanza della Segnatura, Palazzi Pontifici, Vatican. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

In actual fact, there is no single school of Sophist thought. Plato’s response to the leading Sophists is as complex as their various positions.

Generally slighted by Plato, the sophists were quick and intelligent, contributing to knowledge about linguistics, drama and a prototypical form of applied sociology. And they were instrumental in helping young men to “better” themselves in terms of learning how to win arguments—a skill set essential to upward mobility and entrance into political life not only in ancient Greece but also for men and women today.¹

¹ See, for instance, the excellent introductory discussion about ancient Greek philosophy in this DVD set: http://www.thegreatcourses.com/courses/history-of-the-ancient-world-a-global-perspective.html

On the Web:

  • Video touching on some of the topics that the ancient Greeks debated, topics that continued through the Middle Ages, right up to contemporary debates.

Related Posts » Jean A. Baudrillard


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Tokugawa

Tokugawa Ieyasu by jpellgen

Tokugawa Ieyasu – The great commander of the Tokugawa forces and the first shogun of the Tokugawa period, Ieyasu (jpellgen via Flickr)

The Tokugawa were a powerful military family in medieval Japan whose members held power and ruled as Shoguns from 1603-1867.

The origins of the clan remain unclear. But under Tokugawa rule society was legitimized with Confucian hierarchical ideals. Social classes were ranked by status with warriors holding the highest position, followed by farmers, then workers and, last, merchants.

This is an interesting variant to the Hindu caste system, where the castes originated from a ritually dismembered Primal Cosmic Man, emerging in a different status order than in medieval Japan.

The highest, fair-skinned Brahman caste (priests, thinkers) emanated from the head, the lower and darker Kshatriya caste (rajas, warriors, persons of action) from the arms, while the next lower and darker Vaisna caste (merchants) originated from the thighs.

Later, the additional fourth, lowest and darkest Sudra caste (servants) was added, believed to be the “feet” of the purusa.¹

In recent times, the Shoguns and Samurai have taken a whole new mythic life with movies, TV, anime, and gaming.

¹ https://earthpages.wordpress.com/2012/10/21/caste/

Related Posts » Confucius, Confucianism

On the Web:

  • This documentary of Tokugawa Ieyasu was made using real pictures of the actual Samurai involved, and their Crests, set to The Lonely Shepard. There was one factual error in the movie, that of course beeing that Oda Nobunaga was not from peasant stock as implied, but that subtitle had been meant Hideyoshi, Toyotomi. Enjoy” (StaggerLeee)

 


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Michael Wood

MICHAEL WOOD

MICHAEL WOOD (Photo credit: RubyGoes)

Michael Wood (1948- ) is a British filmmaker and historian whose innovative, on-site productions are enjoyed by thinking persons around the world. Not quite as sensational as more recent productions by other UK notables, what makes Wood’s docs different is his sophisticated levity.

Other UK doc stars like Simon Schama have been criticized for oversimplifying. But Schama makes no apologies for this. To anyone who thinks it’s easy to make a documentary, he says “try it.” And I suppose that kind of challenge could be given to cynical critics everywhere. However, one doesn’t have to be an expert at creating in order to be an expert at comparing and critiquing something.

Related Posts » Troy

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