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Psychopathy (also called sociopathy)

The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde po...

The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde poster (Wikipedia)

A psychopath – also called a sociopath – is an individual with no regard for ethics who displays little or no emotional response in harming others or being harmed. These individuals habitually lie, cheat, engage in antisocial and even criminal behavior. They also manipulate, exploit, betray and break hearts but feel no shame, guilt or remorse in the process.

Psychopaths are cold, callous and often chillingly clever. They may, for instance, take a spouse and even have children just to look normal, fit in to society and get away with depraved schemes. In espionage, this may also apply to hostile spies from another country who take an indigenous wife in their new country of residence to fortify their cover. Psychopaths often sense another person’s feelings but, unlike the empath, use their ability to manipulate and exploit.

This screenshot shows Ingrid Bergman as she is...

This screenshot shows Ingrid Bergman as she is pleading with Dr. Jekyll (Wikipedia)

According to Freud, the psychopath has a strong id and an overdeveloped ego, which together overshadow the superego. More recently, Declan Murphy and a team of psychiatric researchers in the UK suggest that neural activity in the emotional centers of the psychopath’s brain is minimal.

Many attribute violence in the media as a contributing factor that might push a borderline personality into full psychopathy. But psychopathy isn’t just about violent crimes. Participants in the Enron scandal, for instance, could be seen as psychopathic.

Some theorists associate psychopathy and hate but these two characteristics are not necessarily linked. Psychopaths simply don’t feel remorse, guilt nor shame. And it’s unclear whether this is caused by a deeply repressed hate that emerges in twisted forms or, on the other hand, some genetic trait that renders the psychopath callous and uncaring.

English: 1920 movie poster for 1920 American f...

1920 movie poster for 1920 American film Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (Wikipedia)

An article at www.abc.net.au claims that psychopath managers at the workplace are as common as 1 in 10.¹ We should remember, however, that the term psychopath is a concept, one not necessarily 100 percent present in reality. Some individuals, for instance, may exhibit many of the characteristics of a textbook psychopath 99.9% of the time but also display genuine caring 0.1% of the time.

Wikipedia reminds us that the concept of psychopathy has historical roots, has undergone changes and currently has different meanings:

The definition of psychopathy has varied significantly throughout the history of the concept; different definitions continue to be used that are only partly overlapping and sometimes appear contradictory.²

¹ “Corporate Psychopaths,” Catalyst, Reporter: Jonica Newby, Producer: Louise Heywood, Researcher: Jonica Newby, May 5, 2005.

² https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychopathy

Related » Darth Vader, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (The Strange Case of), Phrenology, Solitude

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Deviance

No smoking deviance

No smoking deviance (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Deviance is a statistical term but it’s also an area of study in sociology, psychiatry, psychology and criminology.

In the social sciences deviance is about trying to understand why people break social norms and what this means for the individuals who live in and, together, comprise society. At least, that would be a good beginners definition. But in reality the social sciences dig much deeper and ask some tough questions about the why’s and how’s of deviance.

For starters, the social understanding of normality and abnormality varies dramatically across cultures and throughout history. What’s okay here is not necessarily okay there. And what’s okay now was not necessarily okay back then.

In the West, studies indicate that, on the whole, our correctional institutions do not really correct criminal offenders. On their release from prison, many resume a life of crime and become repeat offenders.

Interestingly enough, some functionalist sociologists say that society needs or, at least, indirectly benefits from crime and high recidivism rates. Criminality keeps large sectors of the labor force employed, especially those connected to law enforcement and the justice system, as well as those businesses that benefit from selling crime deterrent products (e.g. alarm and surveillance systems, locks, encryption and anti-theft software).

English: This chart depicts how different elem...

English: This chart depicts how different elements of society change in response to deviant acts, creating deviants in the process. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Also, the pioneering sociologist Emile Durkheim suggested that deviance serves another positive social function. It forces us to realize just what our rules and regulations are. And in so doing, deviance actually strengthens the social bond among the majority who, so they believe, are not deviant.

Imagine, for instance, taking a ride in an elevator. Suddenly a stranger takes their shirt off and asks you to rub their shoulders. Our society does have a place where this kind of behavior is socially acceptable among strangers—namely, the massage and physiotherapy clinic. But it is not acceptable on the elevator! And if someone tried to do that, most of us would instantly know that it wasn’t, and this knowledge would reinforce our sense of belonging to the larger clan. That is, society.

Other thinkers say that to passively accept the supposed functional aspect of deviance is to deny the possibility of a world without crime or, at least, one in which crime is not pandemic to society.

Postmodern thinkers like Michel Foucault note the relativity of the term deviance and suggest that its meaning is derived through social power. For Foucault, power discursively marks off the deviant from the normal individual. In so doing, the deviant becomes marginalised—that is, deprived of the goods, opportunities, rights, privileges and other pleasures that the normal person is entitled to. This process may occur somewhat automatically when different professionals become consciously (or unconsciously) convinced of their own unshakeable authority in determining the normal, the moral and the legal.

Deviant ID

Deviant ID (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

However, corruption theorists point to the hypocrisy of societies that incarcerate low-status, petty criminals with tough sentences while government leaders and business elites caught engaging in illegitimate activities are usually given a proverbial slap on the wrist.

Others believe that deviance is largely a genetic problem. That is, criminals inherit bad genes and there’s not too much that can be done about it. To counter this claim, many sociologists say that learning and cultural deprivation have much to do with the making of a deviant.

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