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Polyphonic chant (and a little polyphonic trivia for the digital age)

gregorian chant

K Leb – Old book of Gregorian Chant; some place in Aragón via Flickr

Polyphonic chant is a type of Christian devotional singing developed in the 10th century where two or more melodies or parts are sung together in a composition.

As with anything new, not everyone approved of polyphony.

Some believed that melodic complexity was the work of the devil, who tried to seduce believers through the sin of pride. Pope John XX II was dead against polyphony and in 1324 CE warned his flock not to fall into the satanic lure of musical innovation.

Pope Clement VI Cameo

Pope Clement VI Cameo via Wikipedia

However, such narrow-mindedness couldn’t stop the flow of musical evolution.

As different cultures and musical styles increasingly intermingled, more complex forms of polyphony emerged in the medieval and renaissance eras, like the motet, the rota, the canon, polyphonic masses and madrigals. Another Pope (Clement VI) actually championed polyphony. So not all the Popes were backward looking duds.

The 18th century saw further development of the fugue, which had roots in simpler, medieval compositions. A good, lighthearted example of a modern fugue is found in Glenn Gould‘s “So You Want To Write a Fugue?”¹

Today, the word polyphony takes on whole new meanings with electronic instruments.

Oberheim 4voice '"Used by 808 State, Depe...

Old analog synthesizer – Oberheim 4voice ‘”Used by 808 State, Depeche Mode, Styx, The Shamen and John Carpenter. Produced from ’75 to ’79. Killed by the Prophet-5.” via Wikipedia

Most hardware and software synthesizers allow users to select the number of notes or layers they want to work with. For example, one might set polyphony to 4, 8, 16 or 32. Generally speaking, the higher the polyphony, the more complex the sound. But increased polyphony puts more demand on a computer processor.

Composing a pop song with “phat bass” and lush synth sounds, for example, would probably require more PC power than an ordinary phone or tablet could provide. Great strides are being made to make bigger sounding virtual instruments work on mobile devices and everyday computers. It’s all about clever, efficient software coding to get the most bang out of lighter processors without any unwelcome stuttering, freezing or crashing. If only those owning high-end gaming computers and expensive sound cards could run commercial music software, not too many units would be sold.

Sylenth1, a popular virtual instrument that runs on a computer, with polyphony settings at top left – via https://www.lennardigital.com/sylenth1

Back in the early days of computing I thought all PCs ran at the same speed because information is carried by electricity, and electricity runs practically instantaneously. Ha ha. Not so. Like anything, electronic data transfer follows basic laws and principles much like water moving through plumbing.

A bit of a diversion here, but it serves to demonstrate that polyphony demands more energy than monophonic performances. Be it with human singers and musicians, or with artificial electronic instruments.²

¹ More about polyphonic music thru my LINER notes » http://lnr.li/v5yC3/

² I added “artificial” lest we forget that human beings are also electrical to some extent.

Related » Orpheus

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Mantra

Om mani padme hum (mantra) at Tsozong Gongba M...

Om mani padme hum (mantra) at Tsozong Gongba Monastery via Wikipedia

A mantra (Skt. “Instrument of thought”) is a sacred word in Asian religions, usually containing one syllable.

Traditionally given by a guru (Skt. “teacher”) to a disciple, when repeatedly spoken or sung the mantra apparently acts much like the Zen koan, transporting the disciple beyond mundane consciousness into the realm of the transcendental.

The most popular mantra is the Sanskrit, AUM or OM. A variant in Tibetan Buddhism is the polysyllabic, Aum-Mani-Padme-Hum.

The mantra is said to operate on a similar principle as music and some types of scripture. It is believed that the right type of vibration can help to deliver a fettered soul to a better plane of existence. That is, it apparently fosters the transformation of consciousness from one state to another, in this life and the next.

Contemporary psychology studies indicate that simple repetition of any monosyllabic word, not necessarily imbued with religious significance, may have a calming effect on the mind (e.g. “tin… tin… tin…”).

Skeptics say that the mantra may be calming, but it may also numb the mind or simply dumb it down. And people like Edwin Schur argue that this kind of alleged “awareness” is really self-absorption that leads to social apathy and inactivity.¹

Such a critique is not only leveled against Asian mysticism. Christian mysticism has been similarly challenged, by both secular and Christian fundamentalist individuals.

In response to these secular and fundamentalist critiques, the bona fide mystic may contend that those voicing them are not yet at a place in their spiritual formation to understand the importance of mysticism, a practice which some say is the most noble of all paths, spiritual and otherwise.

The term mantra is also casually used in the English language as a kind of watchword or slogan that expresses a valued practice or belief–e.g. “Less is more,” “Sex sells,” “Time is money.”

¹ See, http://openlibrary.org/books/OL4535408M/awareness_trap

Search Think Free » Contemplation, Gregorian Chant, Hebrew, Mandala, Meditation, Orpheus, Polyphonic Chant, Raga, Sanskrit

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