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Near Death Experiences – Beyond Belief?

Hieronymus Bosch via Wikipedia

A Near Death Experience (NDE) is a personal experience reported by those who have been revived after being clinically dead or, alternately, by those who have approached the point of death.

Religious and non-religious persons, alike, have reported NDEs.

Although specific details differ, a large number of reports from so-called developed nations could be summarized as follows:

• A person leaves the body and watches a medical team trying to revive them

• A glorious, warm light appears at the end of a tunnel as if a portal to another dimension has opened

• If the deceased person enters the portal, the light grows larger and they are suffused with a profound sense of belonging and love

• Others report being greeted by departed friends, loved ones or spiritual beings

• Individuals are often told (or sense) they must return to their bodies to do more work on Earth

• Individuals often do not want to return to their bodies but some kind of force calls or directs them back. Others do wish to return for the sake of a loved one on Earth or to fulfill a duty or finish a project

Although NDEs exhibit cultural differences, there are core similarities:

Tribal people may report paddling in a canoe down a long dark river for three days towards the sun…rather than floating down a tunnel towards the light. The experience, whatever the cultural differences, usually have a deep and long lasting effect. It often leaves behind a legacy of profound spirituality and removes the fear of death.¹

Near Death Experience

Near Death Experience: dat’ via Flickr

Most people having undergone an NDE believe their out-of-body experience was real and not hallucinatory.

A growing body of psychiatrists and neurologists try to explain NDEs by arguing that the brain is oxygen deprived and the individual hallucinates to ease the potentially upsetting transition from life to nothingness.²

This materialistic trend seems to be increasing, which is hardly surprising given the scientific enthusiasm of our times—often involving scientism.

Many people have reported a NDE. The overwhelming majority report positive experiences, with only about 8% reporting negative, hellish encounters where a portal leads downward to an intolerable, horrific place of suffering.

The depth psychologist Carl Jung had an NDE. Jung said that dying was like “stepping out of a tight shoe.”³ After seeing the Earth from space and feeling deeply serene, Jung returned to his physical body.

As with many NDE reports, Jung found the regress to his body disquieting.

Scientific research has found a correlation between electrically stimulating specific brain centers and the experience of leaving the body and seeing it from a distance. This finding, however, neither proves nor refutes NDE reports. The issue might remain ambiguous for many years because arguably the best way to know about a NDE is to have one.

Photographic illustration of a near-death-expe...

Photographic illustration of a near-death-experience. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

No matter how convincing NDEs are to NDEers, the intensely private character of the experience puts them at the fringe of contemporary science. And scientists seeming to have the answer become unscientific if they overextend themselves in the discussion of results.

Sort of a Catch 22 when talking about the afterlife.

I personally believe in NDEs. But I think we have to accept that paranormal phenomena like this come down to belief. As long as we’re embodied, that is.

¹ Danny Penman, “Near-death experiences are real and we have the proof, say scientists” Newsmonster.co.uk, August, 1 2007. (link has changed since last revision)

² I’ve seen some weak attempts to square this with Darwinian theory but personally remain unconvinced.

³ C. G. Jung, Memories, Dreams, Reflections, revised, ed. Aniela Jaffé, trans. Richard and Clara Winston, New York: Vintage Books, 1961, pp. 289-298.

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 Psychic School Wars – Episode 1 – Psychic School Wars (crunchyroll.com)

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Occam’s Razor… and the Anti-Razor

Occam's Razor

Occam’s Razor by Thunderchild7 via Flickr

Occam’s razor is a philosophical belief, associated with William of Occam (c. 1287-1347), that a proverbial razor should cut away all unnecessary variables of a given theory to attain the greatest degree of parsimony.

This means that the best among competing hypotheses are those with the least number of assumptions and which are most easily tested.

Occam’s razor has become a mainstay of the scientific method. However, many see it as reductionist, particularly in psychology, sociology and history.

For example, ancient and medieval cultures saw demons as a factor in both physical and mental illness. But 21st century science tends to dismiss this and most paranormal claims as ‘magical thinking.’ For some, this is not valid science but, rather, a biased and limiting approach to knowledge.

The other night while watching Star Trek Discovery I thought about reductionism and the prevailing view of mental illness. Lieutenant Paul Stamets (played by Anthony Rapp) is in a coma with moments of activity where he apparently speaks nonsense.

Stamets hooked into the spore drive, allowing Discovery to make instantaneous jumps across vast sectors of space. Image via https://www.inverse.com/article/38173-star-trek-discovery-stamets-traveler-theory-tng-next-generation

In reality, however, he is doing essential work in another dimension (generated by a ‘mycelial network’) with his mirror self from a parallel universe. The two selves, primary and mirror, work together in a kind of limbo realm, trying to get back to their respective universes and bodies.¹

For a moment I wondered if this could be a metaphor for some ‘mentally ill’ street people who might be doing important, otherworldly work that seems like madness to the worldly wise.

We can’t know, looking from the outside. Some homeless people might be psychologically wounded and deceived by evil powers. But I think the idea that some may be meaningfully engaged elsewhere is something to think about before writing someone off as a “psycho.”

Another sci-fi adventure illustrating the possible shortcomings of Occam’s razor is found in the movie Contact (1997), based on a novel by Carl Sagan.

Jodie Foster plays scientist, Ellie Arroway, who travels through a wormhole and meets an intelligent being at the edge of the universe. Arroway returns to Earth in a matter of seconds and, of course, no one believes a word of her incredible story. As a scientist, Arroway concedes that she could have been hallucinating due to stress overload. But as a human being, her heart tells her that her otherworldly experience was real.

.
Not surprisingly, holistic thinkers often question the value of Occam’s razor. And some philosophers have forwarded anti-razor theories to counter what they see as its confining simplicity, along with comparable beliefs preceding Occam’s razor.²

¹ (a) At least, that is what the primary believes. He ends up in the wrong universe. I got a little help here from this page: http://ew.com/recap/star-trek-discovery-season-1-episode-12/  (b) Margaret Atwood recently said sci-fi basically tells us about the now. In part I agree but also think sci-fi can be so much more than mere political commentary. Good sci-fi takes us to new possibilities.

² (a) Aristotle and others voiced ideas similar to Occam’s. See http://lnr.li/vUOng/ (b) Before sophisticated planetary tracking technology, in the early 19th century another issue was about drawing curves from the noisy data of planetary movement. If the dots were joined too loosely and smoothly, accuracy was lost. If joined too precisely, erratic data might have skewed the overall curve. So getting the right balance was important. See Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 2nd Edition: https://is.muni.cz/el/1421/podzim2014/LJMgrB07/um/Cambridge_Dictionary_of_Philosophy.pdf pp. 197-198, 629.

Related » Karma Transfer, Nominalism, Obsession, Shaman, Shamanism, Spiritual Attack


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Psychokinesis – Is it in your head?

Uri Geller in Moscow (Russia)

Uri Geller in Moscow, Russia via Wikipedia

Also called PK, psychokinesis (Greek: psyː.kʰɛ̌ː  +  kī́nēsis) is a form of psi in which a person’s thoughts allegedly affect objects without physical contact.¹

PK usually involves moving or modifying objects in space. One of the most famous exponents of transforming objects is Uri Geller, who has bent spoons in public, apparently with the power of his mind.

Detractors of PK like James Randi suggest that Geller is a fraud, using trickery without possessing the integrity to call himself a conjurer or a magician.

PK performances on TV and the internet are virtually impossible to verify. Even the simplest video editing software could produce the illusion of, say, spoon-bending. And a classic bimetalic strip could be built in to customized spoons.

The scientific community generally says there is no conclusive, publicly verifiable support for psychokinesis. However, we have numerous reports over the years of objects spontaneously moving, making noise and, more recently, of appliances switching on or off in relation to strong emotions of anger or fear. For instance, I heard a story from a friend that another mutual friend became enraged and the kitchen stove came on.

Artist conception of spontaneous psychokinesis from 1911 French magazine La Vie Mysterieuse via Wikipedia

Carl Jung believed that he experienced a kind of automatic PK when arguing with a skeptical Sigmund Freud, ironically enough, about the reality of paranormal phenomena.

Apparently while speaking with Freud, Jung’s diaphragm tightened up and felt unusually warm. Suddenly an explosive sound came from a bookcase in Freud’s study, where the two men were squabbling. Jung then claimed, so the story goes, the sound was an example of “catalytic exteriorization” but Freud was unconvinced.

The bookcase again made a loud noise. More impressed this time, apparently Freud continued to hear the sound after Jung left. To this John and Ann Spencer ask whether the fault lay in the bookcase or if, perhaps, Freud became angry enough to somehow cause it to emit noise.²

As a former volunteer in the paranormal category at the now defunct allexperts.com, I read quite a few reports of psychokinesis related phenomena. Were some of these authentic or were all of these reports merely the product of wannabe fantasy writers? I can’t be sure.

Spirit photography hoaxer Édouard Isidore Buguet. (1840-1901) of France fakes telekinesis in this 1875 cabinet card photograph titled Fluidic Effect via Wikipedia

Historically, countless tricksters and cheats have meddled with photos, metal objects or used sleight of hand, trying to convince others of the reality of PK. If by chance the mind could affect matter at a distance, this long history of hoaxers only serves to make genuine claimants seem like charlatans.

It is true that both Russian and American intelligence agencies have shown an interest in paranormal phenomena.³

Whether or not the controlled American results were statistically insignificant, as we commonly hear, remains unknown. If anyone did have the power to read minds or, as with PK, affect matter at a distance, chances are such an ability would be kept secret.

With so much fake news these days, it doesn’t seem too far-fetched to suppose there could be a massive disconnect between what we hear and what’s actually happening in any given country.

Meanwhile, believers in PK tend to portray scoffers and skeptics as “acting like people who have evidence of a crime and hide it.”And although most paranormal claims do not hold up in laboratory conditions, believers say that artificial setups kill the vibe or that the subtle mechanism of psi just doesn’t work that way.

¹ Another common word for this alleged ability is telekinesis.

² John and Ann Spencer, Encyclopedia of the World’s Greatest Unsolved Mysteries, 1995, p. 260. This explanation is conceivable but a bit too ad hoc for me.

³ Stuart Gordon, The Paranormal: An Illustrated Encyclopedia1992, pp. 551-552.

4 Ibid, p. 552.

An advertising poster depicting magician Harry Kellar performing the “Levitation of Princess Karnac” illusion, 1894, U.S. Library of Congress via Wikipedia


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Star Trek’s Prime Directive – A lofty idea with a few wrinkles

Image FET-OPEN call deadline via Twitter

In the fictional world of Star Trek, the Prime Directive is a core regulation of Starfleet. To understand what the Prime Directive means, we have to know how Star Trek depicts its moral universe.

Star Fleet officers usually see themselves as an alliance of “good guys” belonging to the United Federation of Planets, as opposed to the “bad guys” made of up species like the Cardassians and the Borg.

Starfleet is concerned about right ethics, so the Prime Directive stipulates noninterference with other species’ planetary development.

This applies to space exploration through normal time¹ and to time travel. Violating the prime directive results in court-martial, except in extenuating circumstances.

The Prime Directive sounds like a great idea but, we could ask, what exactly does “non-interference” mean?

Extreme causal loop time travel paradox animation

Extreme causal loop time travel paradox animation – Wikipedia

Religious and New Age people, for instance, tend to say that humanity is invisibly guided by advanced beings residing in the universe, astral realms, heavens and throughout time.² If so, a Federation starship crew might have a moral responsibility to help primitive but eligible species develop better ways of living.

Despite its lofty ideal of non-interference, the Prime Directive is often breached. Moral dilemmas are key to dramatic storytelling and, it goes without saying, TV ratings. In real life, St. Paul says that moral dilemmas are best solved by following the spirit instead of the letter of the law.³ So it’s not surprising that the Prime Directive is often messed with.

As any good popcorn popping cultural studies or phony entertainment critic will say, art follows life and life follows art.

A relatively novel mystery arises with The Prime Directive’s treatment of temporal paradoxes. For obvious reasons, Star Trek’s writers never fully answer the tricky question: Could a time traveler going back in time be certain what choice out of many possible choices would be best? Or, for that matter, is there a single, best choice?

English: Capt. Jean-Luc Picard as Borg Locutus...

Capt. Jean-Luc Picard as Borg Locutus – Wikipedia

Possible answers to these conundrums lead to notions of a plethora of potential outcomes and universes (to include parallel universes) and a multiverse (which differs from parallel universes).

Tantalizing cosmological questions have been posed by both mystics and subatomic physicists, but no universally agreed upon answers have been found due to their speculative nature.4

But one thing is certain. The Star Trek mythos is no silly fantasy but, rather, provides us with some of the best imaginative thinking in 20th and 21st century science fiction.

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¹ Technically, Star Trek might be at odds with reality because warp speeds are faster than the speed of light but travelers experience no time dilation. But being good sci-fi, fans are obviously willing to give the benefit of the doubt.  They weren’t as forgiving with Space 1999, which was visually interesting but a bit of a bomb.

² For some, demons try to get us off track.

³ Usually associated with St. Paul in 2 Corinthians 3:6, the idea has other applications. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Letter_and_spirit_of_the_law

4 Sometimes the speculation is forwarded as a hypothesis, which is good, healthy science or mysticism. But other times it is not, as with those claiming to have advanced knowledge that others lack. In religion and the New Age, these mentally unwell characters may be ego-inflated holy men and women or, from my experience, some religious studies professors who do their esoteric “thing” under the cover of academia. In both cases, these half-baked manipulators are blind to their own prejudices and do everything possible to convince you that they know better. Watch out!

 Star Trek Continues, The Trek Show That Fans Wanted (ansionnachfionn.com)

 Star Trek spat: Why did one Starfleet captain block another on Twitter? (mashable.com)


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Predestination – Software is updated… why not theology?

Icon depicting the First Council of Nicaea.

Icon depicting the First Council of Nicaea – Wikipedia

The Chairman of the Bored

Not sure if it’s because of the holiday season and all the extra activity – inner and outer – during this time. But I’ve been letting this entry hang, fully aware it’s in need of revision. Which is a nice way of saying… I’m bored of theology!

Actually, I’m not bored of theology per se. If I’m predestined for anything, it’s to think about God and creation, trying to figure out how it all works, realizing I’ll always fall short due to my human limitations.

But that’s just it.

Human limitations.

I’m finding it dull and uninspiring writing about what a bunch of men thought about God over the centuries, some of whom were probably misogynist and racist.

It just seems so stiff and wooden.

So I’m going to boil it down to two main points. Or rather, the two main forms that, historically speaking, the idea of predestination takes.

Predestination in a nutshell

The first type of predestination, articulated by St. Augustine, is that some individuals are divinely predestined to reside in an eternal heaven. Many believe the following New Testament passage supports this belief:

Jesus said to them, “You will indeed drink from my cup, but to sit at my right or left is not for me to grant. These places belong to those for whom they have been prepared by my Father” (Matthew 20:23, NIV).

English: Laszlo Szlavics Jr.: John Calvin memo...

Laszlo Szlavics Jr.: John Calvin memorial medal, 110 mm, bronze, cast, 2008 – Wikipedia

The second type, called “double predestination” (or dual predestination), is the belief that God predestines some for everlasting heaven and others to eternal hell.

Gottschalk of Orbais, an unorthodox 9th-century theologian was imprisoned for advancing the notion of double predestination.

Centuries later, the Protestant reformer John Calvin made double predestination a key feature of his theology, differentiating it from the Catholic take.

Leading questions

Again, this is only the simplest of outlines. The idea of predestination has been debated for centuries among world religions. Some of the leading questions are:

  • Is God good?
  • How could a good God allow some souls to suffer an eternal hell?
  • Does God actively plan or passively allow eternal damnation?
  • Is God all-powerful?
  • Is God all-good?
  • Are we in a position to understand or judge God?
  • How do we envision God, after all?
  • Are we free to make good or bad choices?
  • Are we determined in some grand web of cause and effect?

The questions and answers are, indeed, many.¹

Time for an update?

Plasma Lamp by Luc Viatour via Wikipedia

Historically, it seems that theologians play word games to try to justify their limited outlook on God, space-time and creation.

God knows in advance how we will choose, for instance. Similarly, God permits but does not enforce our evil actions, we often hear.

This doesn’t intellectually satisfy most people because the answer is way beyond our human capacity for understanding.

With our imploding/exploding 21st-century cosmology where matter/energy and space/time are not absolutes, the old ways of looking at the issue come off even more stale and regimented.

Carl Jung picked up on this problem. His solution was to say that God is half unconscious and, really, half bad. For Jung, God learns to be ethically better through God’s own creation.

I think this is rubbish. Jung, despite his best efforts to differentiate the ego from the archetype became a bit egotistical in my opinion. True, I never met him. But from his work and biographical material it seems he occasionally fell into the power trip trap.

This morning I noticed a new article about Near Death Experiences.² It adds an intriguing piece to the puzzle.

solarein – Coma Domine via Flickr

The author says he died but came back.

During his comatose “death” he literally felt all the bad things he had done to other people. And each hell, he says, is custom made for a particular person’s transgressions.

Whoa.

My solution

Rather than speculate too much, I think it’s more practical to just try to do our best at being good. Deep down I believe we all know what that means. Some of us may be so messed up, touchy and unhappy that we do bad things to compensate for our hurt. We try to rationalize our bad behavior.

But in the end, we know.

And so does God, I believe.

* “The Chairman of the Bored” are lyrics from the Iggy Pop tune, I’m Bored.
¹ See Wikipedia entry for more interfaith details.
² My tweet:

 

Related » Book of Job, Determinism

 Western philosophy is racist (aeon.co)


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Pisces – Something fishy here?

pisces

Pisces – Peter Tittenberger via Flickr

Before the internet most newspapers had a horoscope section. It might have been a small weekly column or a full-blown page on weekends.

Every morning my family read the local paper. I always managed to get the entertainment and sports sections. And the index. You always needed the index because that’s how you found out where your horoscope was.

Sort of an extra feature, like the comics, the horoscopes were juggled around to fit any blank space in the daily edition layout.

How times have changed… Or have they?

Horoscopes are still popular. Today people read more than a newspaper blurb. Now you can get a complete online reading if, that is, you know your date and time of birth. Press the button and the machine tells your life story.

Why are horoscopes still around?

Science generally says they’re rubbish. Christian theologians don’t like astrology much either (although Hindus consult astrologers during wedding ceremonies).

It seems there’s a middle ground between science and religion that appeals to the public. Something like myth and fantasy. I guess that’s where horoscopes come in.

Anatomical Man in the Duke Berry's Très Riches...

Anatomical Man in the Duke Berry’s Très Riches Heures (Photo: Wikipedia)

Whenever updating the astrology entries at Earthpages.ca I feel like a bit of a fraud. I’ll be honest. I don’t really believe in astrology any longer. Not sure if I ever did.

I know some people do believe and I respect that. We’re all different with unique paths. But for me, the power of God and the Holy Spirit makes any kind of “cosmic force” look small. It’s not that I don’t believe in cosmic forces. I do. It’s just a question of magnitude and relevance.

Let’s for a moment concede that cosmic forces affect the psyche. But what about God, the creator of those cosmic forces? God is infinitely larger and more powerful than any influence of Jupiter or Neptune.

Some astrology believers just don’t get this. They see God as the sum of the observable cosmos, known to thinkers like me as natural pantheism.

Still don’t see what I’m saying?

Let’s try this. Instead of the cosmos acting on mind and body, how about something more immediate, like nutrition.

Most people agree that nutrition is important. The substances we ingest directly influence our minds and overall health. But that’s not the whole story. Jesus of the New Testament tells us that we don’t live on bread alone. It’s the “alone” part that matters. There’s something more. Christians call it the Holy Spirit.

Likewise with astrology. We are not influenced by creation, alone. There’s more. The Creator of creation. Simple as that.

Take another analogy. God made the wind which, although invisible, is a powerful force. I believe in the wind from seeing, hearing, feeling and sometimes smelling its perceptible effects.

However, any good sailor can tack into the wind. We don’t have to be blown around just because the wind exists.

God gave us a mind and the ability to choose.

Well, enough preamable. Rather than rewrite my existing entry on Pisces, I’ll just tweak it.

No need to perpetuate the charade. I don’t believe in astrology. Life is too complex and ambiguous to be boiled down to an arbitrary theory. I’m not saying astrology is totally false. Cosmic forces no doubt exist. And astrology has entertainment, mythic and historical value. But to invest too much in it, I think, falls somewhere between spirituality and superstition.

A juvenile distraction, fine. But for spiritual adults, one hopefully moves on.

Pisces (February 19 – March 21) is the twelfth and a winter sign of the zodiac, symbolized by the fish and associated with the planetary rulers of Neptune and Jupiter. Its element is water.

Astrologers say that from Neptune, Pisces longs for a return to the primal waters; that is, a plunge into the underworld depths of the collective unconscious.

From Jupiter, Pisces is youthful, with all the pros and cons accompanying adolescence.  Astrologers say Pisceans are gentle but with fits of rashness, even cruelty.

Sometimes passive and lazy, Pisceans apparently alternate between lethargy and spells of vigor, enthusiasm and hope.

Prominent Pisces include Johnny Cash, Billy Crystal,  Elizabeth Taylor, Rihanna, Albert Einstein and Justin Bieber.

Pisces – The book of birth of Iskandar – Wikipedia

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Psi – Good, evil, real or fantasy?

English: Example of a subject in a Ganzfeld ex...

A subject in a psi experiment – Wikipedia

Psi (Ψ, ψ) is a Greek letter that today names frat houses and also denotes the idea of paranormal phenomena.

Coined by Bertold P. Wiesner, “psi” was appropriated in 1942 by Drs. Robert Thouless to indicate ESP

Psi later became an umbrella term for a range of alleged abilities. These include telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, near-death experiences, reincarnation, apparitions and other unconventional phenomena involving subtle sensing, near and at a distance.

Around the turn of the century, psi was popularized by the TV program Psi Factor, hosted by Dan Aykroyd. The show dramatized the pros and cons of purported psi abilities. Several other popular TV shows about psi have come and gone. The idea has become more mainstream in sci-fi and fantasy, along with the notion of psychological time travel.

George Noory hosts a popular radio show, Coast to Coast AM, where fringe and more credible callers phone in to talk about psi experiences, insights and most other things paranormal.

toads-fly2

The Skeptics

Psi remains controversial. Skeptics say no reliable scientific evidence supports it. Believers argue that psi is not amenable to science as we know it. The psychologist Carl Jung claimed that some scientific studies gave significant results. But Jung’s claim is debatable.²

More recently, a new breed of thinkers are calling for a reworked science that would

  • assess spiritual and paranormal reports as potentially legitimate data for scientific study
  • develop a holistic approach that would extend our understanding of science but not lapse into scientism
birds final

The Believers

Many religious people question the ethics of psi. Psi may exist, they argue, but we need to ask if enhanced abilities are in line with God’s will. This question implies its opposite; namely, that evil may endow – or seem to endow – individuals with psi.

Psychiatry views psi in terms of mental health and illness. While not absolutely negating the possibility of psi, most psychiatrists would probably say the brain creates some kind of hallucination, giving rise to the false belief that psychic abilities exist.

Catholicism’s take on psi reveals a curious mix of traditional religion and 21st century psychiatry. Exorcism prayers may be recited over those deemed possessed or obsessed by an evil spirit. Alternately, afflicted individuals may be advised to consult a psychiatrist.

Psi Factor: Chronicles of the Paranormal

Psi Factor: Chronicles of the Paranormal – Wikipedia

Instead of resorting to a black and white scenario like satanic influence vs. mental illness, psi errors and questionable beliefs about psi could be explained by a combination of psychological, social and spiritual factors.

Effective treatments could best involve spirituality, psychiatry, along with the humanities and arts to sort through cultural prejudices – and lies – that could contribute to personal issues.

Lasting solutions to psychological unsoundness would ideally involve a multi-disciplinary approach. But this is rare in most corners of the world. Maybe we’re just not “there” as a species. I’m not sure. But it seems that many religious people, especially fundamentalists, come down heavily on psi. They are convinced psi is of the devil. Meanwhile, the psychiatrist balks if we suggest an angel, demon or dead person might influence us from the other side.

However, psi need not be contrary to religion or psychological therapy. Catholic saints, for instance, reportedly have a gift for “reading hearts”—that is, intuitively knowing what others are thinking, feeling or experiencing.

And belief in organized religious teachings is “sane” according to psychiatry (which some say is a politically charged and culturally relative outlook).

So saying that psi is always of the devil or, on the other hand, a mere psychological fantasy seems a superficial reaction to countless reports that just might be pointing toward the next step in human evolution.

¹ Thouless, R. H. (1942) cited at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psi_%28parapsychology%29, “Experiments on paranormal guessing”. British Journal of Psychology, 33, 15-27.

² Clark, Michael. Synchronicity and poststructuralism: C. G. Jung’s secularization of the supramundane, 1997: pp. 72, 119-122, 130, 156-157, 177-179.

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