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Near Death Experiences – Beyond Belief?

Hieronymus Bosch via Wikipedia

A Near Death Experience (NDE) is a personal experience reported by those who have been revived after being clinically dead or, alternately, by those who have approached the point of death.

Religious and non-religious persons, alike, have reported NDEs.

Although specific details differ, a large number of reports from so-called developed nations could be summarized as follows:

• A person leaves the body and watches a medical team trying to revive them

• A glorious, warm light appears at the end of a tunnel as if a portal to another dimension has opened

• If the deceased person enters the portal, the light grows larger and they are suffused with a profound sense of belonging and love

• Others report being greeted by departed friends, loved ones or spiritual beings

• Individuals are often told (or sense) they must return to their bodies to do more work on Earth

• Individuals often do not want to return to their bodies but some kind of force calls or directs them back. Others do wish to return for the sake of a loved one on Earth or to fulfill a duty or finish a project

Although NDEs exhibit cultural differences, there are core similarities:

Tribal people may report paddling in a canoe down a long dark river for three days towards the sun…rather than floating down a tunnel towards the light. The experience, whatever the cultural differences, usually have a deep and long lasting effect. It often leaves behind a legacy of profound spirituality and removes the fear of death.¹

Near Death Experience

Near Death Experience: dat’ via Flickr

Most people having undergone an NDE believe their out-of-body experience was real and not hallucinatory.

A growing body of psychiatrists and neurologists try to explain NDEs by arguing that the brain is oxygen deprived and the individual hallucinates to ease the potentially upsetting transition from life to nothingness.²

This materialistic trend seems to be increasing, which is hardly surprising given the scientific enthusiasm of our times—often involving scientism.

Many people have reported a NDE. The overwhelming majority report positive experiences, with only about 8% reporting negative, hellish encounters where a portal leads downward to an intolerable, horrific place of suffering.

The depth psychologist Carl Jung had an NDE. Jung said that dying was like “stepping out of a tight shoe.”³ After seeing the Earth from space and feeling deeply serene, Jung returned to his physical body.

As with many NDE reports, Jung found the regress to his body disquieting.

Scientific research has found a correlation between electrically stimulating specific brain centers and the experience of leaving the body and seeing it from a distance. This finding, however, neither proves nor refutes NDE reports. The issue might remain ambiguous for many years because arguably the best way to know about a NDE is to have one.

Photographic illustration of a near-death-expe...

Photographic illustration of a near-death-experience. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

No matter how convincing NDEs are to NDEers, the intensely private character of the experience puts them at the fringe of contemporary science. And scientists seeming to have the answer become unscientific if they overextend themselves in the discussion of results.

Sort of a Catch 22 when talking about the afterlife.

I personally believe in NDEs. But I think we have to accept that paranormal phenomena like this come down to belief. As long as we’re embodied, that is.

¹ Danny Penman, “Near-death experiences are real and we have the proof, say scientists” Newsmonster.co.uk, August, 1 2007. (link has changed since last revision)

² I’ve seen some weak attempts to square this with Darwinian theory but personally remain unconvinced.

³ C. G. Jung, Memories, Dreams, Reflections, revised, ed. Aniela Jaffé, trans. Richard and Clara Winston, New York: Vintage Books, 1961, pp. 289-298.

Related » Heaven, Hell

 The Cloverfield Paradox Lacks the Tension and Twists of Its Predecessors (gizmodo.co.uk)

 This Photo of Earth Reminds Us How Small We Are (livescience.com)

 Psychic School Wars – Episode 1 – Psychic School Wars (crunchyroll.com)

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The Numinous and Numinosity – Seeing The Light Beyond All Lights

I can’t remember when I first encountered the English term numinous; most likely while reading a Jungian work or something by Carl Jung himself.

Embed from Getty Images

Swiss psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung (1875 – 1961),
the founder of analytical psychology, circa 1960.

The word derives from the Latin numen, usually translated as “the presence of a god or goddess” or the “will, manifestation or power of a deity.”

The most ancient example is in a text of Accius cited by Varro: “Alia hic sanctitudo est aliud nomen et numen Iouis” (“Here, the holiness of Jupiter is one thing, the name and power of Jupiter another).”¹

The English form is traceable to Nathaniel Ward, who in 1647 wrote:

The Will of a King is very numinous; it hath a kinde of vast universality in it.²

Rudolf Otto

Most religion writers cite the German Lutheran scholar Rudolf Otto (1869-1937) who used “numinous” to describe experiences of spiritual power.

For Otto, the numinous originates not from corporeality, as so many reductive psychologists would contend, but from beyond the person. As a personal experience, however, one perceives the numinous psychologically.

If this is difficult to imagine, consider the analogy of wind. Only an imbecile would say that the feeling of the wind is literally caused by the skin. No. Something contacts the skin, and is then interpreted by the body and brain. In a roughly similar way, the same could be said about numinosity, or spiritual presence. It touches us. We have a direct feeling but also conceptually interpret what’s going on, usually afterward.

Otto believes the numinous takes many forms, and is higher than the magical. Instead of homogenizing all spiritual experiences into a fake, politically correct sameness, Otto says the numinous has primitive, daemonic and dark aspects, as well as a noble, elevated and pure quality.

He calls the purest experience of the numen “The Holy.” Unlike the shady, dimmer aspects of the numinous, this highest aspect involves an experience marked by a feeling of “Awefulness,” “Overpoweringness,” “Energy” or “Urgency.”

Image -pxhere

However, Otto is perhaps not always consistent. Sometimes he appears to imply that the numinous is indistinguishable among all religions. At other times he reveals a Christian bias, suggesting that numinosity experienced through the Bible and by various Christian mystics is ultimate and incorrupt.

From today’s standards, Otto’s definition of numinosity could be critiqued as unsystematic. But his work is regarded as a milestone and continues to influence depth psychology and comparative religion.

After all, we can’t really expect pioneers to get everything perfect the first time around. That’s like asking someone who has just developed the rocket to do a perfect Mars landing. It just doesn’t work that way. Not in outside reality nor in the internal realm.

Carl Jung and R. D. Laing

Carl Jung adapted the word numinous to depict spiritual experiences involving a “peculiar alteration” of ego-based consciousness, commonly called altered states.

Religious teaching as well as the consensus gentium always and everywhere explain this experience as being due to a cause external to the individual. The numinosum is either a quality belonging to a visible object or the influence of an invisible presence that causes a peculiar alteration of consciousness.³

Jung devised an entire psychological theory to account for the numinous and other supernatural experiences, like synchronicity. (Rather than summarize Jung’s theory here, I’ll just link to the related concepts.)

Image – pxhere

For Jung, we experience numinosity when an archetype of the collective unconscious is activated. Depending on the psyche’s overall condition, one’s ego stability, and the actual archetypal source, numinosity may be psychologically healing, destructive or, in a third case scenario, transformationally destructive.

When transformationally destructive, numinosity contributes to a breakdown which, some like R. D. Laing say, could be a precursor to a breakthrough. The rocky road to wellness and increased wisdom is often called a “creative illness.” By and large, it’s a dynamic more appreciated by gurus, shamans and alternative healers. Not to say that all mainstream psychiatrists are out to lunch here. And psychiatrists may receive more acutely upset and downright dangerous clients than the average guru. But there’s arguably room for improvement on all sides.

Joseph Campbell and Mircea Eliade 

The American scholar of mythology Joseph Campbell says that numen finds parallel expression in the “Melanesian mana, Dakotan wakon, Ironquoian orenda and Algonquian manitu.” I like Campbell a lot but he tends to overgeneralize. Put simply, we can’t assume that different terms from various religious traditions denote identical spiritual presences and experiences. And quite often Campbell seems to be doing just that.

No wonder “The Force” in Star Wars is seen as a universal principle with just two aspects, the dark and light. Campbell was approached by George Lucas and had a hand in the development of the mythological and spiritual aspects of Star Wars. True, the hero cycle in Star Wars is effective. But the depiction of spirituality leans towards a reductive pantheism. Specifically, the idea of The Force ignores the cosmologies of several world religions where God is seen as wholly other but immanent. 

Along these lines, the Romanian scholar Mircea Eliade says numinosity exhibits diverse intensities, qualities and effects. Not just one kind with two ethical forms, as with the noble and fallen Jedi Knights.4

Immanuel Kant via Wikipedia

Sigmund Freud and Immanuel Kant

Sigmund Freud touched on so many issues and has been hugely influential within psychology, the humanities and the arts. Not surprisingly, many seekers ignore his crude and backward looking approach to spirituality, but I think that’s a mistake.

Freud no doubt misunderstood the numinous by reducing it to early development. For Freud the numinous is nothing more than remembering a unified “oceanic bliss” that every fetus (apparently) feels within the mother’s womb.

Sadly, the founder of psychoanalysis was not a mystic or perhaps unwilling to accept mysticism on its own terms.

Yet I think it is fair to ask – in a Freudian way – if some alleged religious experience is just emotional fanaticism instead of true grace—think of Super Bowl, Stanley Cup or international football fans and how they resemble some religious fanatics. The jury is out on this one, and it’s a complicated question. But I think Freud’s insights into psychological complexes could come into play with pseudo, emotionally based and also with low grade, oppressive and controlling numinosities.

Before Otto, Jung, Campbell, Eliade and Freud, the philosopher Immanuel Kant spoke to a realm of the noumena. For Kant, noumena are objects and events independent of the senses. Kant claimed that we cannot know the character of a particular noumenon but he believed we may determine the sheer existence of noumena by virtue of the “intelligible order of things”—that is, by studying the observable world of phenomena.

Etymologically, the terms noumena and numinous are not directly related. This has lead most scholars to dismiss any possible semantic connections between them. But even if two words are not etymologically close, their connoted meanings are not necessarily devoid of relationship. (Some run-of-the-mill academics probably wouldn’t consider this).

Kant’s noumena could, indeed, be at the root of some forms of numinous experience, especially in mystical schools leaning toward naturalistic pantheism, such as Zen Buddhism and maybe Taoism.

But again, the idea of numinosity extends well beyond this rather basic possibility.

St. Teresa of Ávila and John Milton

Many mystics from diverse traditions talk about different levels and classes of numinous experience. And even within a single spiritual tradition, descriptions of the numinous vary dramatically in terms of quality and intensity.

Consider, for instance, an ordinary Catholic versus a full-fledged saint like St. Teresa of Ávila. The one feels a solid, holy presence while walking into a church, maybe chats with her or his buddies after Mass. The other experiences a plethora of absorbing visions, revealed warnings and numinous raptures that literally floors them.

In Paradise Lost John Milton depicts Satan’s dismay when he sees the dismal, hellish gloom he’s confined himself to after forfeiting the glorious light of heaven.5

Is this the region, this the soil, the clime,” Said then the lost archangel, “this the seat That we must change for Heaven, this mournful gloom For that celestial light?

Could this be a warning for some of us?

¹ Schilling, Robert. “Numen.” Encyclopedia of Religion. Ed. Lindsay Jones. Vol. 10. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 6753-6754. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale.

² The simple cobler of Aggawam in America, cited in Oxford English Dictionary.

³ In Catholicism, devotional objects and images do not contain numinosity in themselves but rather aid in the reception of otherworldly graces. An important distinction that Jung glosses over here. See http://frithluton.com/articles/numinous/

4 See also Deidre Sklar, “Reprise: On Dance Ethnography.” Dance Research Journal, Vol. 32, No. 1 Summer, 2000: 70-77, p. 72.

While the experience alternately called presence, or unity, or numinosity may be the same across spiritual traditions, “ways of doing” are different. Presence comes in a multitude of flavors. “The virgin,” is different than “Buddha” or “God the Father.” Kneeling in prayer before the virgin is a different bodily experience than sitting cross-legged in meditation. Both the natures of the divinities and the ritual practices performed in their names are elaborated in distinct communities to do different work upon soma.

5 C. S. Lewis, Aldous Huxley, Ursula K. Le Guin and several others each have their own take on the numinous. See my highlights here http://lnr.li/sDdLz/

A sampling of material about numinosity at Earthpages.ca and Earthpages.org

 A Hundred Thousand Year Old Civilisation? (newdawnmagazine.com)

 This is what Happens when we Allow our Souls to Express Themselves. (elephantjournal.com)


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The Oedipus Complex – Do adult ogres have unresolved stuff from childhood?

Oedipus complex: Oedipus explains the riddle o...

Oedipus complex: Oedipus explains the riddle of the Sphinx, Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres. (ca. 1805) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

In Greek myth Oedipus was the king of Thebes who did his best to avoid a prophecy saying he would kill his father and marry his mother. Like most good tales about knowing the future, Oedipus inadvertently fulfills the prophecy by trying to avoid it.

We see this a lot in sci-fi with time-loop stories. The protagonist does everything possible to avoid a bad outcome but in doing so becomes part of the thread leading to that unwanted outcome.

A lot of people know about Oedipus but the old Greek tale never really grabbed me personally.  So I’ll just link to a good summary for the curious.¹

To me, more engaging is the synchronous/synchronistic connection between this entry coming up for revision and my recent interest in “Reelin’ in the Years,” where I’m doing a yearly retrospective of pop tunes I liked from the moment of my birth to 2018. Right now – as I revise this entry – I’m on 1965, where I write “I’m three years old.”

If this sounds weird, let me explain.

Oedipus at Colonus by Jean-Antoine-Theodore Giroust 1788 French Oil (5)

Oedipus at Colonus by Jean-Antoine-Theodore Giroust 1788 French Oil (5) by Mary Harrsch via Flickr

The Austrian pioneer of psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud began to use the name Oedipus in his work after seeing a performance of Sophocles’ tragic play Oedipus Rex. Some years later he came up with the term, Oedipus complex.

For Freud, an Oedipal complex develops after the male infant becomes fixated to his mother during the Oedipal phase of ego development (ages 3-5).

Here the infant develops bizarre beliefs because, well, he is just a child. He sees or perhaps hears his father and mother lovemaking (called the “primal scene”) and perceives his father as a threat.

His fear intensifies when seeing the father’s penis, leading the child to irrationally assume that he, himself, has been castrated. The child then demonizes the father and identifies with his apparently all-good mother.

He resolves the complex by eventually identifying with the father along with the external, societal demands that the father represents to the child.

Carl Jung – efigment via flickr

Freud believed successfully passing through the Oedipus complex was a natural process.

But if the complex goes unresolved, the man’s choice of – and demands from – lovers and marriage partners in later years reflects his unconscious infantile, mother-based expectations.

These desires are unrealistic and not grounded in reality (the “reality principle”).

Current trends in psychoanalysis trace the Oedipus complex to earlier conflicts (apparently) present in the first few years of psychosexual ego development.

As for girls, Carl Jung proposed an Electra Complex. But Freud maintained that the Oedipus complex applied to boys and girls, not really getting his own sexism.

Freud deprecated the term “Electra complex”, which was introduced by Carl Gustav Jung in 1913 in regard to the Oedipus complex manifested in young girls. Freud further proposed that the Oedipus complex, which originally refers to the sexual desire of a son for his mother, is a desire for the parent in both males and females, and that boys and girls experience the complex differently: boys in a form of castration anxiety, girls in a form of penis envy.²

Melanie Klein via Wikipedia

Jacques Lacan and others like George Herbert MeadAbraham Maslow and Melanie Klein acknowledge the importance of the early childhood shift from a narrow parent-focus to realizing a greater social self. That is, a world out there.

If I get Lacan right, he also says the unconscious unfolds throughout life with a synchrony of signifiers. For me, that means certain markers will appear at the right time³ for personal growth.

So the apparent coincidence of my working on “Reelin’ in the Years” (remembering feelings from age three) and this particular entry coming up for revision fits into both Freudian and Jungian theory—the former as synchrony, the latter as synchronicty.

That’s hardly surprising to me. I believe in not only attaining spiritual knowledge but also in digging deep into the childhood and early teen psyche to uncover any early feelings not entirely dealt with. Too many people, it seems, achieve some kind of functional ‘spirituality’ but not necessarily the best possible kind because they carry so many unresolved issues that their brand of otherworldliness simply covers up.

Rasputin via Wikipedia

You know… that psychopath boss at work. He or she has impressive insight or charisma but uses these qualities to cheat, manipulate or steal. Often we can’t really put our finger on it – because clever creeps are great at hiding their secret schemes – but our gut tells us something is terribly wrong.

Some say psychoanalysis is a science, others see it as a sham with little or no empirical support for its fanciful claims. Although the spirit of Freud’s approach still reverberates in psychiatry, especially with the almost unquestioned idea of the “unconscious,” the specifics of Freudian theory have largely fallen by the wayside.

Most countries see psychiatry as a credible discipline with legal powers and responsibilities while non-medical psychologists and humanitarians do not enjoy that kind of pervasive influence.4

Jacques Lacan criticized ego psychology and ob...

Jacques Lacan criticized ego psychology and object relations theory via Wikipedia

¹ Oedipus Rex or Oedipus the King Summary

² http://lnr.li/iwx7O/

³ This is how I understand the Greek word kairos. But probably not everyone would agree here.

4 In Ontario, for instance, psychiatry is covered by OHIP whereas other therapies (such as Jungian and various holistic approaches) are not.

Related » Electra Complex, Melanie Klein, Stages of Psychosexual Development, Totem

 The Enthralling, Anxious World of Vladimir Nabokov’s Dreams (3quarksdaily.com)

 White children more likely to suffer mental health issues, study finds (telegraph.co.uk)

 Yes, Your Daily Stress Can Haunt Your Dreams (livescience.com)

 Untangling the Complicated, Controversial Legacy of Sigmund Freud (thecut.com)

 The Greatest Quest: The Search for Meaning & Finding our Calling. (elephantjournal.com)


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Freud, Objects and People – Why this elevator never reached the top floor

Freuds ( tipo andy warhol )

Freuds ( tipo andy warhol ) by Paulo Marquez via Flickr

For Sigmund Freud, the object is something a subject directs energy toward in an attempt to gratify instinctual desires.

Just how a person relates to the object depends on their psychological maturity.

In Freudian theory the object usually refers to another person, aspects of a person, or a full or partial symbolic representation of a person.

When an object refers to another complete person, replete with human rights and dignity, the object is called a whole object.

By calling other people “objects” it may seem that Freud’s theory objectifies people and is unduly self-absorbed. But that would be a flawed interpretation. Freud also says the psyche’s main job is to balance internal and external forces acting on it. In his own lingo, the ego mediates the often competing demands of the id (instincts) and the superego (internalized social norms and morals).

Freud does fall short, in my opinion, with his view of morality—or rather, the source of morality. Some people do seem to feel neurotic guilt and shame based on faulty upbringing or authoritarian social norms.

And this would fit with Freud’s thinking. But other, more genuine, feelings of contrition may arise from a sense of something higher, something truly spiritual which guides our understanding of morality.

Freud doesn’t put much stock in this kind of religious or spiritual thinking.

The founder of psychoanalysis was an atheist who generally mocked those experiencing – what they understood as – spiritual insights and graces.

One can’t help but wonder how many materialistic psychiatrists do the same sort of thing today, especially when it comes to personal spirituality, which has a rather sketchy status within contemporary psychiatry.¹

¹ In contrast to organized religion which psychiatry is compelled to accept, just as social and political pressures impelled it to accept gays and lesbians only after many years of stigmatization and harmful “treatments.”

Related » Cathexis, Fixation, Projection, Repression, Splitting, Stages of Psychosexual Development

References:

  • Charles Rycroft, A Critical Dictionary of Psychoanalysis, Harmondsworth: Penguin 1977, p. 100.


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Obsessive Compulsion – Time for a Meeting of Psychology and Religion?

Feeding an obsession

Feeding an obsession by Hirni Pathak via Flickr

Psychology

In psychoanalysis, obsession is a neurosis where one dwells on an issue, situation or another person to an extent that could be unhealthy and potentially destructive. In mainstream psychology, obsessive thoughts are usually regarded as irrational.

At best, obsessive people are a pain in the neck. But it can be far worse than that.

Obsession should not be confused with compulsion, the latter involving behavior. However, obsessive thinking is often accompanied with compulsive behavior—for example, a lonely, jealous and hateful internet stalker.

Psychologists see obsessive thought and compulsive behavior as flawed mechanisms where a person tries to avoid unconscious feelings of pain, guilt or inadequacy.

Contemporary psychology calls this unhealthy merging of thought, feeling and behavior Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD).

A classic literary example of obsessive-compulsive behavior is found in Shakespeare’s character Lady Macbeth, whose repeated hand washing bespeaks a crime and her related feelings of guilt and defilement.

Magnificent Obsession (1954 film)

Magnificent Obsession (1954 film) via Wikipedia

Theology

In Catholic theology, obsession refers to a person unduly influenced or harassed by evil spiritual powers or beings. This differs from possession, the belief that a person loses control over the body – but not the soul – as the devil seems to control them.¹

Psychological and theological perspectives on obsession could be combined to mutual advantage.

For instance, unresolved psychological complexes could be weak spots in a person’s psychological armor (usually called “sense of self” or “boundaries”), allowing demonic influences to actually cause or exacerbate conditions and behaviors which manifest as obsessive-compulsive behavior.

Put simply, evil might like to prey on psychological vulnerabilities. And I think it probably does. Or, rather, tries to.

¹ I say “seems to control” not to bracket the truth claim from a secular point of view but rather, to emphasize that Catholic theology believes the devil can never really control another person. These are two very different ideas.

Related » Mental Illness, Occam’s Razor, Shaman, Shamanism, Spiritual Attack, Tramp Souls, Undoing

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 The Glenholme School Observes Mental Health Awareness Month (prweb.com)

 This tiny dog is a compulsive thief and he needs to be stopped (mashable.com)

 Is Video Game Addiction Unscientific Bullshit? (gizmodo.co.uk)


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Occam’s Razor… and the Anti-Razor

Occam's Razor

Occam’s Razor by Thunderchild7 via Flickr

Occam’s razor is a philosophical belief, associated with William of Occam (c. 1287-1347), that a proverbial razor should cut away all unnecessary variables of a given theory to attain the greatest degree of parsimony.

This means that the best among competing hypotheses are those with the least number of assumptions and which are most easily tested.

Occam’s razor has become a mainstay of the scientific method. However, many see it as reductionist, particularly in psychology, sociology and history.

For example, ancient and medieval cultures saw demons as a factor in both physical and mental illness. But 21st century science tends to dismiss this and most paranormal claims as ‘magical thinking.’ For some, this is not valid science but, rather, a biased and limiting approach to knowledge.

The other night while watching Star Trek Discovery I thought about reductionism and the prevailing view of mental illness. Lieutenant Paul Stamets (played by Anthony Rapp) is in a coma with moments of activity where he apparently speaks nonsense.

Stamets hooked into the spore drive, allowing Discovery to make instantaneous jumps across vast sectors of space. Image via https://www.inverse.com/article/38173-star-trek-discovery-stamets-traveler-theory-tng-next-generation

In reality, however, he is doing essential work in another dimension (generated by a ‘mycelial network’) with his mirror self from a parallel universe. The two selves, primary and mirror, work together in a kind of limbo realm, trying to get back to their respective universes and bodies.¹

For a moment I wondered if this could be a metaphor for some ‘mentally ill’ street people who might be doing important, otherworldly work that seems like madness to the worldly wise.

We can’t know, looking from the outside. Some homeless people might be psychologically wounded and deceived by evil powers. But I think the idea that some may be meaningfully engaged elsewhere is something to think about before writing someone off as a “psycho.”

Another sci-fi adventure illustrating the possible shortcomings of Occam’s razor is found in the movie Contact (1997), based on a novel by Carl Sagan.

Jodie Foster plays scientist, Ellie Arroway, who travels through a wormhole and meets an intelligent being at the edge of the universe. Arroway returns to Earth in a matter of seconds and, of course, no one believes a word of her incredible story. As a scientist, Arroway concedes that she could have been hallucinating due to stress overload. But as a human being, her heart tells her that her otherworldly experience was real.

.
Not surprisingly, holistic thinkers often question the value of Occam’s razor. And some philosophers have forwarded anti-razor theories to counter what they see as its confining simplicity, along with comparable beliefs preceding Occam’s razor.²

¹ (a) At least, that is what the primary believes. He ends up in the wrong universe. I got a little help here from this page: http://ew.com/recap/star-trek-discovery-season-1-episode-12/  (b) Margaret Atwood recently said sci-fi basically tells us about the now. In part I agree but also think sci-fi can be so much more than mere political commentary. Good sci-fi takes us to new possibilities.

² (a) Aristotle and others voiced ideas similar to Occam’s. See http://lnr.li/vUOng/ (b) Before sophisticated planetary tracking technology, in the early 19th century another issue was about drawing curves from the noisy data of planetary movement. If the dots were joined too loosely and smoothly, accuracy was lost. If joined too precisely, erratic data might have skewed the overall curve. So getting the right balance was important. See Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 2nd Edition: https://is.muni.cz/el/1421/podzim2014/LJMgrB07/um/Cambridge_Dictionary_of_Philosophy.pdf pp. 197-198, 629.

Related » Karma Transfer, Nominalism, Obsession, Shaman, Shamanism, Spiritual Attack


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Princess Leia – A Star Wars icon lives on

Carrie Fisher who plays Leia – Wikipedia

There’s a new Star Wars film out which some say is the best since The Empire Strikes Back, and Princess Leia is up next for revision.

A nice coincidence, especially since actor Carrie Fisher, who plays the original Leia, also plays Leia in later years as Senator and General Leia Organa.

In the Star Wars Trilogy, Princess Leia is Luke Skywalker‘s twin sister and Darth Vader‘s daughter.

Reflecting attitudes of the late 1970s, Leia is cast as a feminist and still serves today as a feminist role model.

A few people say she’s not a great feminist icon, but on the whole Leia is seen that way.

Perhaps the critics don’t like the male chauvinism that pervades the early Star Wars scripts.

Han Solo, for instance, condescendingly says he knows, despite Leia’s apparent disgust toward his sexual advances, that she “really wants it.” And Leia’s role in the film sometimes evokes a more traditional female sex role stereotype.

As noted in a sidebar at Wikipedia:

Leia wearing her iconic golden “metal bikini” slave outfit at Jabba’s palace. Leia’s appearance has been voted one of the most memorable swimsuit moments of cinema history.¹

English: Christy Marie as Slave Leia Organa.

Christy Marie as Slave Leia Organa – Wikipedia

Is this a showcase for the feminist sentiments of the time? I suppose it depends on the person interpreting. Like most social movements, feminism moves within a total context so has been evolving… slowly.

Before her untimely death in 2016 Fisher occasionally introduced vintage films with Turner Classic Movies host Robert Osborne.

She also struggled with mood swings that she managed with drug use. Embracing the diagnosis of “bipolar disorder” given to her by the medical establishment, she evidently had no other way to decode her feelings and the medical model arguably didn’t help too much.

This is unfortunate. I often feel that if some took a broader view of their unconventional psychological experiences they might get a better grip on them—without the use of heavy drugs or, as Fisher underwent, ECT.²

General Leia is in theaters as I write this. The posthumous release of Fisher’s performance in The Last Jedi is helping to make box office records.

Like all Hollywood greats, Fisher lives.

¹ This quote is from several years ago. The link and caption has changed to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Princess_Leia%27s_bikini 

² Recently I was surprised to learn that the medical establishment still practices ECT. When I took psych in the 1980s ECT was frowned upon as a part of psychiatry’s dark history. That this practice continues today, with such spurious scientific backing, imo is horrific.

 These limited-edition Columbia Sportswear coats are inspired by ‘The Empire Strikes Back’ (businessinsider.com)

 ‘The Last Jedi’ Doesn’t Care What You Think About ‘Star Wars’ – And That’s Why It’s Great (slashfilm.com)

 Star Wars: 15 Crazy Minor Characters You NEED To Know About (screenrant.com)

 ‘The Last Jedi’ first premiere reactions are here and – you guessed it – the Force is strong (mashable.com)

 Review – ‘Star Wars: The Last Jedi’ (space.com)

 Star Wars Episode II – Attack of the Clones review: ‘a pleasant surprise’ (telegraph.co.uk)

 The Ultimate Star Wars Quiz: Find Out Which Character Matches Your Personality (time.com)

 Star Wars Project Demise Due To “Team Health” Issues At Visceral, Not Single-Player Focus (wccftech.com)

 “The Last Jedi” Felt Like a Dream. I’m Not Sure I Even Really Saw It. (motherjones.com)