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Near Death Experiences – Beyond Belief?

Hieronymus Bosch via Wikipedia

A Near Death Experience (NDE) is a personal experience reported by those who have been revived after being clinically dead or, alternately, by those who have approached the point of death.

Religious and non-religious persons, alike, have reported NDEs.

Although specific details differ, a large number of reports from so-called developed nations could be summarized as follows:

• A person leaves the body and watches a medical team trying to revive them

• A glorious, warm light appears at the end of a tunnel as if a portal to another dimension has opened

• If the deceased person enters the portal, the light grows larger and they are suffused with a profound sense of belonging and love

• Others report being greeted by departed friends, loved ones or spiritual beings

• Individuals are often told (or sense) they must return to their bodies to do more work on Earth

• Individuals often do not want to return to their bodies but some kind of force calls or directs them back. Others do wish to return for the sake of a loved one on Earth or to fulfill a duty or finish a project

Although NDEs exhibit cultural differences, there are core similarities:

Tribal people may report paddling in a canoe down a long dark river for three days towards the sun…rather than floating down a tunnel towards the light. The experience, whatever the cultural differences, usually have a deep and long lasting effect. It often leaves behind a legacy of profound spirituality and removes the fear of death.¹

Near Death Experience

Near Death Experience: dat’ via Flickr

Most people having undergone an NDE believe their out-of-body experience was real and not hallucinatory.

A growing body of psychiatrists and neurologists try to explain NDEs by arguing that the brain is oxygen deprived and the individual hallucinates to ease the potentially upsetting transition from life to nothingness.²

This materialistic trend seems to be increasing, which is hardly surprising given the scientific enthusiasm of our times—often involving scientism.

Many people have reported a NDE. The overwhelming majority report positive experiences, with only about 8% reporting negative, hellish encounters where a portal leads downward to an intolerable, horrific place of suffering.

The depth psychologist Carl Jung had an NDE. Jung said that dying was like “stepping out of a tight shoe.”³ After seeing the Earth from space and feeling deeply serene, Jung returned to his physical body.

As with many NDE reports, Jung found the regress to his body disquieting.

Scientific research has found a correlation between electrically stimulating specific brain centers and the experience of leaving the body and seeing it from a distance. This finding, however, neither proves nor refutes NDE reports. The issue might remain ambiguous for many years because arguably the best way to know about a NDE is to have one.

Photographic illustration of a near-death-expe...

Photographic illustration of a near-death-experience. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

No matter how convincing NDEs are to NDEers, the intensely private character of the experience puts them at the fringe of contemporary science. And scientists seeming to have the answer become unscientific if they overextend themselves in the discussion of results.

Sort of a Catch 22 when talking about the afterlife.

I personally believe in NDEs. But I think we have to accept that paranormal phenomena like this come down to belief. As long as we’re embodied, that is.

¹ Danny Penman, “Near-death experiences are real and we have the proof, say scientists” Newsmonster.co.uk, August, 1 2007. (link has changed since last revision)

² I’ve seen some weak attempts to square this with Darwinian theory but personally remain unconvinced.

³ C. G. Jung, Memories, Dreams, Reflections, revised, ed. Aniela Jaffé, trans. Richard and Clara Winston, New York: Vintage Books, 1961, pp. 289-298.

Related » Heaven, Hell

 The Cloverfield Paradox Lacks the Tension and Twists of Its Predecessors (gizmodo.co.uk)

 This Photo of Earth Reminds Us How Small We Are (livescience.com)

 Psychic School Wars – Episode 1 – Psychic School Wars (crunchyroll.com)

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The Numinous and Numinosity – Seeing The Light Beyond All Lights

I can’t remember when I first encountered the English term numinous; most likely while reading a Jungian work or something by Carl Jung himself.

Embed from Getty Images

Swiss psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung (1875 – 1961),
the founder of analytical psychology, circa 1960.

The word derives from the Latin numen, usually translated as “the presence of a god or goddess” or the “will, manifestation or power of a deity.”

The most ancient example is in a text of Accius cited by Varro: “Alia hic sanctitudo est aliud nomen et numen Iouis” (“Here, the holiness of Jupiter is one thing, the name and power of Jupiter another).”¹

The English form is traceable to Nathaniel Ward, who in 1647 wrote:

The Will of a King is very numinous; it hath a kinde of vast universality in it.²

Rudolf Otto

Most religion writers cite the German Lutheran scholar Rudolf Otto (1869-1937) who used “numinous” to describe experiences of spiritual power.

For Otto, the numinous originates not from corporeality, as so many reductive psychologists would contend, but from beyond the person. As a personal experience, however, one perceives the numinous psychologically.

If this is difficult to imagine, consider the analogy of wind. Only an imbecile would say that the feeling of the wind is literally caused by the skin. No. Something contacts the skin, and is then interpreted by the body and brain. In a roughly similar way, the same could be said about numinosity, or spiritual presence. It touches us. We have a direct feeling but also conceptually interpret what’s going on, usually afterward.

Otto believes the numinous takes many forms, and is higher than the magical. Instead of homogenizing all spiritual experiences into a fake, politically correct sameness, Otto says the numinous has primitive, daemonic and dark aspects, as well as a noble, elevated and pure quality.

He calls the purest experience of the numen “The Holy.” Unlike the shady, dimmer aspects of the numinous, this highest aspect involves an experience marked by a feeling of “Awefulness,” “Overpoweringness,” “Energy” or “Urgency.”

Image -pxhere

However, Otto is perhaps not always consistent. Sometimes he appears to imply that the numinous is indistinguishable among all religions. At other times he reveals a Christian bias, suggesting that numinosity experienced through the Bible and by various Christian mystics is ultimate and incorrupt.

From today’s standards, Otto’s definition of numinosity could be critiqued as unsystematic. But his work is regarded as a milestone and continues to influence depth psychology and comparative religion.

After all, we can’t really expect pioneers to get everything perfect the first time around. That’s like asking someone who has just developed the rocket to do a perfect Mars landing. It just doesn’t work that way. Not in outside reality nor in the internal realm.

Carl Jung and R. D. Laing

Carl Jung adapted the word numinous to depict spiritual experiences involving a “peculiar alteration” of ego-based consciousness, commonly called altered states.

Religious teaching as well as the consensus gentium always and everywhere explain this experience as being due to a cause external to the individual. The numinosum is either a quality belonging to a visible object or the influence of an invisible presence that causes a peculiar alteration of consciousness.³

Jung devised an entire psychological theory to account for the numinous and other supernatural experiences, like synchronicity. (Rather than summarize Jung’s theory here, I’ll just link to the related concepts.)

Image – pxhere

For Jung, we experience numinosity when an archetype of the collective unconscious is activated. Depending on the psyche’s overall condition, one’s ego stability, and the actual archetypal source, numinosity may be psychologically healing, destructive or, in a third case scenario, transformationally destructive.

When transformationally destructive, numinosity contributes to a breakdown which, some like R. D. Laing say, could be a precursor to a breakthrough. The rocky road to wellness and increased wisdom is often called a “creative illness.” By and large, it’s a dynamic more appreciated by gurus, shamans and alternative healers. Not to say that all mainstream psychiatrists are out to lunch here. And psychiatrists may receive more acutely upset and downright dangerous clients than the average guru. But there’s arguably room for improvement on all sides.

Joseph Campbell and Mircea Eliade 

The American scholar of mythology Joseph Campbell says that numen finds parallel expression in the “Melanesian mana, Dakotan wakon, Ironquoian orenda and Algonquian manitu.” I like Campbell a lot but he tends to overgeneralize. Put simply, we can’t assume that different terms from various religious traditions denote identical spiritual presences and experiences. And quite often Campbell seems to be doing just that.

No wonder “The Force” in Star Wars is seen as a universal principle with just two aspects, the dark and light. Campbell was approached by George Lucas and had a hand in the development of the mythological and spiritual aspects of Star Wars. True, the hero cycle in Star Wars is effective. But the depiction of spirituality leans towards a reductive pantheism. Specifically, the idea of The Force ignores the cosmologies of several world religions where God is seen as wholly other but immanent. 

Along these lines, the Romanian scholar Mircea Eliade says numinosity exhibits diverse intensities, qualities and effects. Not just one kind with two ethical forms, as with the noble and fallen Jedi Knights.4

Immanuel Kant via Wikipedia

Sigmund Freud and Immanuel Kant

Sigmund Freud touched on so many issues and has been hugely influential within psychology, the humanities and the arts. Not surprisingly, many seekers ignore his crude and backward looking approach to spirituality, but I think that’s a mistake.

Freud no doubt misunderstood the numinous by reducing it to early development. For Freud the numinous is nothing more than remembering a unified “oceanic bliss” that every fetus (apparently) feels within the mother’s womb.

Sadly, the founder of psychoanalysis was not a mystic or perhaps unwilling to accept mysticism on its own terms.

Yet I think it is fair to ask – in a Freudian way – if some alleged religious experience is just emotional fanaticism instead of true grace—think of Super Bowl, Stanley Cup or international football fans and how they resemble some religious fanatics. The jury is out on this one, and it’s a complicated question. But I think Freud’s insights into psychological complexes could come into play with pseudo, emotionally based and also with low grade, oppressive and controlling numinosities.

Before Otto, Jung, Campbell, Eliade and Freud, the philosopher Immanuel Kant spoke to a realm of the noumena. For Kant, noumena are objects and events independent of the senses. Kant claimed that we cannot know the character of a particular noumenon but he believed we may determine the sheer existence of noumena by virtue of the “intelligible order of things”—that is, by studying the observable world of phenomena.

Etymologically, the terms noumena and numinous are not directly related. This has lead most scholars to dismiss any possible semantic connections between them. But even if two words are not etymologically close, their connoted meanings are not necessarily devoid of relationship. (Some run-of-the-mill academics probably wouldn’t consider this).

Kant’s noumena could, indeed, be at the root of some forms of numinous experience, especially in mystical schools leaning toward naturalistic pantheism, such as Zen Buddhism and maybe Taoism.

But again, the idea of numinosity extends well beyond this rather basic possibility.

St. Teresa of Ávila and John Milton

Many mystics from diverse traditions talk about different levels and classes of numinous experience. And even within a single spiritual tradition, descriptions of the numinous vary dramatically in terms of quality and intensity.

Consider, for instance, an ordinary Catholic versus a full-fledged saint like St. Teresa of Ávila. The one feels a solid, holy presence while walking into a church, maybe chats with her or his buddies after Mass. The other experiences a plethora of absorbing visions, revealed warnings and numinous raptures that literally floors them.

In Paradise Lost John Milton depicts Satan’s dismay when he sees the dismal, hellish gloom he’s confined himself to after forfeiting the glorious light of heaven.5

Is this the region, this the soil, the clime,” Said then the lost archangel, “this the seat That we must change for Heaven, this mournful gloom For that celestial light?

Could this be a warning for some of us?

¹ Schilling, Robert. “Numen.” Encyclopedia of Religion. Ed. Lindsay Jones. Vol. 10. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 6753-6754. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale.

² The simple cobler of Aggawam in America, cited in Oxford English Dictionary.

³ In Catholicism, devotional objects and images do not contain numinosity in themselves but rather aid in the reception of otherworldly graces. An important distinction that Jung glosses over here. See http://frithluton.com/articles/numinous/

4 See also Deidre Sklar, “Reprise: On Dance Ethnography.” Dance Research Journal, Vol. 32, No. 1 Summer, 2000: 70-77, p. 72.

While the experience alternately called presence, or unity, or numinosity may be the same across spiritual traditions, “ways of doing” are different. Presence comes in a multitude of flavors. “The virgin,” is different than “Buddha” or “God the Father.” Kneeling in prayer before the virgin is a different bodily experience than sitting cross-legged in meditation. Both the natures of the divinities and the ritual practices performed in their names are elaborated in distinct communities to do different work upon soma.

5 C. S. Lewis, Aldous Huxley, Ursula K. Le Guin and several others each have their own take on the numinous. See my highlights here http://lnr.li/sDdLz/

A sampling of material about numinosity at Earthpages.ca and Earthpages.org

 A Hundred Thousand Year Old Civilisation? (newdawnmagazine.com)

 This is what Happens when we Allow our Souls to Express Themselves. (elephantjournal.com)


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Oedipus – Despite all efforts, a tragic figure

Oedipus

Oedipus – litmuse GR L via Flickr

According to several ancient Greek writers, Oedipus (Greek Oidipous: “swollen foot”) is the mythical son of Laius and king of Thebes.

In taking steps to avoid a prophecy that he would kill his father and marry his mother, Oedipus unwittingly did so.

The Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud named one of his most important ideas after the tragic story of Oedipus—the Oedipus Complex.

The tale of Oedipus exemplifies the Greek belief in hubris.

J.F. del Giorgio, author of The Oldest Europeans (2006), adds that

It is also a dramatic example of the change of institutions in Greece. In matrilineal tribes, the son of the king was not supposed to succeed him, as that would mean to marry his own mother, as it happened with Oedipus.¹

If this entry seems a bit perfunctory, it is. I just thoroughly revised the related The Oedipus Complex and frankly, have run on of steam on this topic. Check out my revision!

¹ https://earthpages.wordpress.com/2018/02/14/oedipus/#comments

On the Web:

Related » Theseus


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The Oedipus Complex – Do adult ogres have unresolved stuff from childhood?

Oedipus complex: Oedipus explains the riddle o...

Oedipus complex: Oedipus explains the riddle of the Sphinx, Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres. (ca. 1805) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

In Greek myth Oedipus was the king of Thebes who did his best to avoid a prophecy saying he would kill his father and marry his mother. Like most good tales about knowing the future, Oedipus inadvertently fulfills the prophecy by trying to avoid it.

We see this a lot in sci-fi with time-loop stories. The protagonist does everything possible to avoid a bad outcome but in doing so becomes part of the thread leading to that unwanted outcome.

A lot of people know about Oedipus but the old Greek tale never really grabbed me personally.  So I’ll just link to a good summary for the curious.¹

To me, more engaging is the synchronous/synchronistic connection between this entry coming up for revision and my recent interest in “Reelin’ in the Years,” where I’m doing a yearly retrospective of pop tunes I liked from the moment of my birth to 2018. Right now – as I revise this entry – I’m on 1965, where I write “I’m three years old.”

If this sounds weird, let me explain.

Oedipus at Colonus by Jean-Antoine-Theodore Giroust 1788 French Oil (5)

Oedipus at Colonus by Jean-Antoine-Theodore Giroust 1788 French Oil (5) by Mary Harrsch via Flickr

The Austrian pioneer of psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud began to use the name Oedipus in his work after seeing a performance of Sophocles’ tragic play Oedipus Rex. Some years later he came up with the term, Oedipus complex.

For Freud, an Oedipal complex develops after the male infant becomes fixated to his mother during the Oedipal phase of ego development (ages 3-5).

Here the infant develops bizarre beliefs because, well, he is just a child. He sees or perhaps hears his father and mother lovemaking (called the “primal scene”) and perceives his father as a threat.

His fear intensifies when seeing the father’s penis, leading the child to irrationally assume that he, himself, has been castrated. The child then demonizes the father and identifies with his apparently all-good mother.

He resolves the complex by eventually identifying with the father along with the external, societal demands that the father represents to the child.

Carl Jung – efigment via flickr

Freud believed successfully passing through the Oedipus complex was a natural process.

But if the complex goes unresolved, the man’s choice of – and demands from – lovers and marriage partners in later years reflects his unconscious infantile, mother-based expectations.

These desires are unrealistic and not grounded in reality (the “reality principle”).

Current trends in psychoanalysis trace the Oedipus complex to earlier conflicts (apparently) present in the first few years of psychosexual ego development.

As for girls, Carl Jung proposed an Electra Complex. But Freud maintained that the Oedipus complex applied to boys and girls, not really getting his own sexism.

Freud deprecated the term “Electra complex”, which was introduced by Carl Gustav Jung in 1913 in regard to the Oedipus complex manifested in young girls. Freud further proposed that the Oedipus complex, which originally refers to the sexual desire of a son for his mother, is a desire for the parent in both males and females, and that boys and girls experience the complex differently: boys in a form of castration anxiety, girls in a form of penis envy.²

Melanie Klein via Wikipedia

Jacques Lacan and others like George Herbert MeadAbraham Maslow and Melanie Klein acknowledge the importance of the early childhood shift from a narrow parent-focus to realizing a greater social self. That is, a world out there.

If I get Lacan right, he also says the unconscious unfolds throughout life with a synchrony of signifiers. For me, that means certain markers will appear at the right time³ for personal growth.

So the apparent coincidence of my working on “Reelin’ in the Years” (remembering feelings from age three) and this particular entry coming up for revision fits into both Freudian and Jungian theory—the former as synchrony, the latter as synchronicty.

That’s hardly surprising to me. I believe in not only attaining spiritual knowledge but also in digging deep into the childhood and early teen psyche to uncover any early feelings not entirely dealt with. Too many people, it seems, achieve some kind of functional ‘spirituality’ but not necessarily the best possible kind because they carry so many unresolved issues that their brand of otherworldliness simply covers up.

Rasputin via Wikipedia

You know… that psychopath boss at work. He or she has impressive insight or charisma but uses these qualities to cheat, manipulate or steal. Often we can’t really put our finger on it – because clever creeps are great at hiding their secret schemes – but our gut tells us something is terribly wrong.

Some say psychoanalysis is a science, others see it as a sham with little or no empirical support for its fanciful claims. Although the spirit of Freud’s approach still reverberates in psychiatry, especially with the almost unquestioned idea of the “unconscious,” the specifics of Freudian theory have largely fallen by the wayside.

Most countries see psychiatry as a credible discipline with legal powers and responsibilities while non-medical psychologists and humanitarians do not enjoy that kind of pervasive influence.4

Jacques Lacan criticized ego psychology and ob...

Jacques Lacan criticized ego psychology and object relations theory via Wikipedia

¹ Oedipus Rex or Oedipus the King Summary

² http://lnr.li/iwx7O/

³ This is how I understand the Greek word kairos. But probably not everyone would agree here.

4 In Ontario, for instance, psychiatry is covered by OHIP whereas other therapies (such as Jungian and various holistic approaches) are not.

Related » Electra Complex, Melanie Klein, Stages of Psychosexual Development, Totem

 The Enthralling, Anxious World of Vladimir Nabokov’s Dreams (3quarksdaily.com)

 White children more likely to suffer mental health issues, study finds (telegraph.co.uk)

 Yes, Your Daily Stress Can Haunt Your Dreams (livescience.com)

 Untangling the Complicated, Controversial Legacy of Sigmund Freud (thecut.com)

 The Greatest Quest: The Search for Meaning & Finding our Calling. (elephantjournal.com)


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Origen – Early Christian thinker often associated with celibacy

Origen (allegedly) castrating himself before a nun – via Wikipedia

Origen (185-254) was a religious scholar, intellectual and ascetic born in Alexandria who tried to synthesize Greek philosophy and Christian belief.

He believed that all souls existed prior to birth, an idea condemned by the Church in the 6th century and rejected by St. Thomas Aquinas.

Origen may have proposed a type of reincarnation but his surviving texts are too fragmentary to be sure.

His orthodox contemporaries believed that he favored a form of universal salvation stipulating that all souls are ultimately admitted to heaven, even the Devil’s. But he, himself, denied that Satan would be saved.

A fierce ascetic, for many years the accepted story was that Origen castrated himself. But in light of recent scholarship and the dissemination of information through the internet, this claim seems dubious today.¹

Carl Jung and others wrote about Origen’s alleged castration. For Jung, Origen did the deed to get closer to his God. But I remember reading this and thinking that Jung was way off here. Most religious traditions demand celibacy for advanced mystics and contemplatives, not because sex is perceived as bad, per se, but because the proverbial seed is said to contain power that facilitates connection with the deity.²

Hence saint Paul said, to paraphrase:

If you can’t be like me (celibate), get married and have regular sex
1 Cor 7 ³

“Universal Man”, an illumination from a 13th-century copy of Hildegard von Bingen’s Liber Divinorum Operum (“Book of Divine Works”, c. 1165) via Wikipedia

Arrested in 250 CE under the persecutions of the Roman Emperor Decius, Origen suffered prolonged torture before dying two years later from his ordeal.

Once deemed an important Church Father, he is still regarded as an important theologian. His ideas continue to influence philosophers and Protestant theologians.

¹ For more on this and universal salvation, see my highlights at LINER.

² I don’t know about the physiology of women and how female celibacy relates to spirituality. Spirituality is variously defined, so this is a complicated topic, any way you look at it. See for instance, Elizabeth Abbot, A History of Celibacy. For Abbot, celibacy combined with spirituality seems to mean she gets more out of her creative life from abstaining. But for deep contemplatives, the meaning seems more esoteric, having to do with the value of contemplative intercession.

³ Like so much in the Bible, this seems a rather general statement. As if all human sexual needs can be boiled down to two types! In reality, I think we see a continuum of needs, often changing over time as individuals not only age but also evolve.

Related » Anathema, Church Fathers, Excommunication, Universalism


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Freud, Objects and People – Why this elevator never reached the top floor

Freuds ( tipo andy warhol )

Freuds ( tipo andy warhol ) by Paulo Marquez via Flickr

For Sigmund Freud, the object is something a subject directs energy toward in an attempt to gratify instinctual desires.

Just how a person relates to the object depends on their psychological maturity.

In Freudian theory the object usually refers to another person, aspects of a person, or a full or partial symbolic representation of a person.

When an object refers to another complete person, replete with human rights and dignity, the object is called a whole object.

By calling other people “objects” it may seem that Freud’s theory objectifies people and is unduly self-absorbed. But that would be a flawed interpretation. Freud also says the psyche’s main job is to balance internal and external forces acting on it. In his own lingo, the ego mediates the often competing demands of the id (instincts) and the superego (internalized social norms and morals).

Freud does fall short, in my opinion, with his view of morality—or rather, the source of morality. Some people do seem to feel neurotic guilt and shame based on faulty upbringing or authoritarian social norms.

And this would fit with Freud’s thinking. But other, more genuine, feelings of contrition may arise from a sense of something higher, something truly spiritual which guides our understanding of morality.

Freud doesn’t put much stock in this kind of religious or spiritual thinking.

The founder of psychoanalysis was an atheist who generally mocked those experiencing – what they understood as – spiritual insights and graces.

One can’t help but wonder how many materialistic psychiatrists do the same sort of thing today, especially when it comes to personal spirituality, which has a rather sketchy status within contemporary psychiatry.¹

¹ In contrast to organized religion which psychiatry is compelled to accept, just as social and political pressures impelled it to accept gays and lesbians only after many years of stigmatization and harmful “treatments.”

Related » Cathexis, Fixation, Projection, Repression, Splitting, Stages of Psychosexual Development

References:

  • Charles Rycroft, A Critical Dictionary of Psychoanalysis, Harmondsworth: Penguin 1977, p. 100.


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The Ontological Argument – Does the Greatest Imaginable Being Exist?

Romanelli -The Meeting of the Countess Matilda and Anselm of Canterbury in the Presence of Pope Urban II – Wikipedia

Ontology is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of being. Questions posed by ontology include what kind of entities exist and how they might relate or be hierarchically structured.

What we call the ontological argument sounds rather daunting. But it is just a theological position that tries to prove the existence of the greatest being of all, namely God.

Several ontological arguments can be found. The most famous was devised by St. Anselm of Canterbury.

St. Anselm describes God in his Proslogion II as “aliquid quo nihil majus cogitari possit” (that than which nothing greater can be conceived). For Anselm, such a being cannot merely live in the “imagination” or “understanding” but must fully exist.¹ Because the greatest conceivable being must exist in all of reality and not just in the mind, God is the greatest conceivable being which by necessity exists.

St. Thomas Aquinas rejected this argument on rational grounds, although Aquinas being a cornerstone of Catholic theology did believe in God.

English: Queen Christina of Sweden (left) and ...

Queen Christina of Sweden (left) and René Descartes (right). Detail from Pierre Louis Dumesnil. Museo nacional de Versailles – Wikipedia

For those unfamiliar with philosophy and theology, this happens quite often. One can believe in something but find shortcomings in a particular argument for its existence or truthfulness.²

The philosopher René Descartes forwarded an outlook similar to Anselm’s. Descartes begins with a method of doubt.³ After coming to the conclusion, “Je pense, donc je suis” (I think, therefore I am), his next question is: “how do I know that the outside world truly exists?”4

Thomas Leahey notes that Descartes was not the first to look at things this way.

St. Augustine [354–430 CE] had said, “If I am deceived, I exist,” and Parmenides [515-445 BCE] had said, “For it is the same thing to think and to be.”5

Portrait of René Descartes, dubbed the "F...

Portrait of René Descartes, dubbed the “Father of Modern Philosophy”, after Frans Hals c. 1648 -Wikipedia

Descartes’ answer to the question of whether or not the outside world exists involves God.

For Descartes, God exists by necessity. God must exist to be perfect. A perfect God also by necessity is good. And a good God would not deceive his creatures into believing in an outside world if such a thing did not exist.

But not only that. Descartes believed that his reasoning about the existence of a good God necessarily originated from beyond himself, like some kind of small revelation.6

¹ See http://mally.stanford.edu/cm/ontological-argument/barnes-translation.html

² For example, I believe in the efficacy of the Eucharist but do not agree that its benefits arise solely from the fact that the sacrament is a social gathering. For me, spiritual elements must be included in an explanation.

³ Some see this as a sham, saying Descartes believed all along. A similar critique arises with Plato who, some contend, pretends through Socrates to start asking questions from scratch when really he is guiding his argument toward foregone conclusions—that is, the doctrine of the Forms.

4 This is similar to solipsism.

5 Link broken since last revision. 😦

6 Leibniz challenged Descartes on his views about God. See https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ontological-arguments/