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Freud’s “Secondary Revision” of Dreams

In Sigmund Freud‘s seminal work on dreams and the unconscious, The Interpretation of Dreams, secondary revision is said to occur whenever we remember a dream’s content.¹ Freud says the original dream content is usually obscure, incoherent and highly symbolic, so … Continue reading


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Looking through a glass darkly – The paranormal, normal and bias

The Latin prefix para means beside or beyond. Like the word supernatural, paranormal refers to any phenomenon that eludes explanation through normal science or conventional wisdom. Paranormal can be a misleading term because what is ‘normal’ is open to debate … Continue reading


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Reversal – Beyond the clever machine

In psychoanalytic theory, reversal is a Freudian defense mechanism. A broader idea than turning against the self, reversal takes place when the ego converts an instinctual impulse into behavior appearing as its opposite. The miser becomes a philanthropist, the pervert … Continue reading


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Reason, Revelation, Inspiration and Illumination – A Matter of Character or Degree?

Embed from Getty Images In both philosophy and theology a distinction is often made between knowledge obtained through reason and knowledge obtained through revelation Many learned and pious discussions follow from this way of looking at things. But I believe … Continue reading


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Sadism – Another one of those old “disorders” turned “alternative”

Sadism is a Freudian term denoting a sexual perversion in which erotic pleasure is gained by inflicting pain on another.¹ The term is derived from the surname of the French nobleman Marquis de Sade (1740-1814), who candidly wrote about the alleged … Continue reading


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Orpheus, Orphism and the Orphic Mysteries

Orpheus was a legendary ancient Greek musician, singer, poet and philosopher from Thrace, said to be the ancestor of the poets Homer and Hesiod. In ancient lore, Orpheus could charm wild beasts with his melodious lyre (a musical instrument, like … Continue reading


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Psyche – More than a bundle of chemicals

Psyche (Greek: soul or spirit) is the personification of the soul in Graeco-Latin myth. The early Roman writer Apuleius looks at psychological transformation and the love between Cupid and Psyche in The Golden Ass, one of the earliest surviving Latin texts. Apuleius is … Continue reading


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Superego

In Sigmund Freud‘s psychoanalytic theory, the superego is the conscious or unconscious element of the ego that is formed from the child’s internalization of parental values, beliefs and prohibitions. Because the superego is internalized in childhood, its moral injunctions are … Continue reading