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Freud’s “Secondary Revision” of Dreams

In Sigmund Freud‘s seminal work on dreams and the unconscious, The Interpretation of Dreams, secondary revision is said to occur whenever we remember a dream’s content.¹ Freud says the original dream content is usually obscure, incoherent and highly symbolic, so … Continue reading


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Psychological Projection – When fiction becomes fact

If we’re all projecting onto one another, where is true, authentic relationship? – Lee Beach Lee Beach was a professor at Trent university. He taught psychology but was also interested in English literature. Dr. Beach’s reading list contained just about … Continue reading


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Persona – Age old concept with a whole new twist

Roots of Persona The idea of the persona has been around for ages, with roots stemming back to ancient Greek and Estruscan civilizations. Over the centuries the use of the term has shifted, evolved and, in response to new technologies, … Continue reading


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Looking through a glass darkly – The paranormal, normal and bias

The Latin prefix para means beside or beyond. Like the word supernatural, paranormal refers to any phenomenon that eludes explanation through normal science or conventional wisdom. Paranormal can be a misleading term because what is ‘normal’ is open to debate … Continue reading


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Reversal – Beyond the clever machine

In psychoanalytic theory, reversal is a Freudian defense mechanism. A broader idea than turning against the self, reversal takes place when the ego converts an instinctual impulse into behavior appearing as its opposite. The miser becomes a philanthropist, the pervert … Continue reading


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Reason, Revelation, Inspiration and Illumination – A Matter of Character or Degree?

Embed from Getty Images In both philosophy and theology a distinction is often made between knowledge obtained through reason and knowledge obtained through revelation Many learned and pious discussions follow from this way of looking at things. But I believe … Continue reading


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Sadism – Another one of those old “disorders” turned “alternative”

Sadism is a Freudian term denoting a sexual perversion in which erotic pleasure is gained by inflicting pain on another.¹ The term is derived from the surname of the French nobleman Marquis de Sade (1740-1814), who candidly wrote about the alleged … Continue reading


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Orpheus, Orphism and the Orphic Mysteries

Orpheus was a legendary ancient Greek musician, singer, poet and philosopher from Thrace, said to be the ancestor of the poets Homer and Hesiod. In ancient lore, Orpheus could charm wild beasts with his melodious lyre (a musical instrument, like … Continue reading


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Psyche – More than a bundle of chemicals

Psyche (Greek: soul or spirit) is the personification of the soul in Graeco-Latin myth. The early Roman writer Apuleius looks at psychological transformation and the love between Cupid and Psyche in The Golden Ass, one of the earliest surviving Latin texts. Apuleius is … Continue reading