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Panpsychism – The Future Calls?

Panpsychism is the belief that all things possess consciousness. Some extend this belief to say that the type of consciousness matches the complexity of a thing’s organization. The idea goes back to ancient times and has appeared around the globe. … Continue reading


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Ants in the Anthill – What’s Missing in the Multiverse?

Most of us have probably heard the term multiverse. But what is it? Well, that might depend on who you are and how you look at things. In the most general sense, the multiverse is a hypothesis that describes many … Continue reading


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A Pagan Place?

Embed from Getty Images The perception of Paganism has changed over the years. Pagans remain a religious minority in most places, and we find different opinions about Paganism as a spiritual path. In advanced countries it is rare and probably … Continue reading


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Panenhenism – A WW-II spy comes up big in religious studies

Panenhenism is a religious studies term coined by the WW-II British undercover agent cum Oxford scholar R. C. Zaehner (1913-1974).¹ A minor point for many, perhaps, but panenhenism differs from the more popular pantheism. Panenhenism refers to the belief that the … Continue reading


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The Runes – Another window into beliefs about the sacred and profane

Runes are the characters of different Germanic languages dating from 150 CE.¹ The characters gradually took on divinatory and mystical significance as they spread from southern Europe to Britain and Scandinavia. They were replaced by the Latin alphabet when runic cultures converted … Continue reading


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Repression – Freud’s master defense mechanism

We’ve probably all heard the psychological term “repressed” without stopping to think where it comes from. The idea of repression usually turns up in sentences like, That bible thumper is so repressed, he can’t get it on with anyone. And in other insinuations like … Continue reading


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Representation – A subtle power for good or ill

In the literary and artistic sense, representation refers to depicting a psychological, social, natural, political or spiritual idea or condition through language, music, visual art, multimedia, CGI or dance. In the sciences, abstract ideas like numbers and their interrelationships are represented … Continue reading


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Realism – What is real, anyhow?

Realism is a term with several meanings. Here are three: 1- Creative work in arts and culture, known as “representations” that appear natural and accurate. The accuracy can be poetic or blunt, and may carry a political message. Like most … Continue reading


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Reaction Formation – A neurotic response to fear

In Sigmund Freud‘s psychoanalytic theory, reaction formation is a defense mechanism in which a repressed, socially unacceptable impulse is expressed in an exaggerated, opposite way. The original impulse, perceived as bad or anxiety producing, remains unresolved in its unconscious, infantile form. This … Continue reading