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Alexander the Great

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Alexander the Great by Stavros Markopoulos via Flickr

Alexander The Great (356-323 BCE) was the third Macedonian king from 336-323 BCE. Born in Pella as the son of Philip II, he became the undefeated conqueror of one of the largest empires of the ancient world, including Egypt and Greece.

Tutored by the Greek philosopher Aristotle, in Egypt Alexander founded the port city of Alexandria, a bustling place with a university after that of Athens and a library containing 400,000 to 900,000 books and scrolls.

After consulting an oracle of Ammon, Alexander was convinced that his formidable abilities came from divine power—that is, he believed he was chosen. After seizing the capitals of Babylon, Susa, Persepolis and Ecbatana, in the following three years he took the eastern part of the empire and in 327 BCE set his sights on India. He took the Punjab but his overburdened troops mutinied, leaving him no choice but to retreat. Soon after he died in Babylon.

At the height of his fame, Alexander rose in popularity to the point of nearly being deified.

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