Bad Faith (French, mauvaise foi) is a social-psychological and philosophical idea conceived by Jean-Paul Sarte where one apparently ignores the possibility of actively choosing one’s commitments. Instead, one becomes a passive pawn for external forces, or merely avoids making a decision about what to commit to.
An example could, perhaps, be the Nazi guard who arbitrarily executes ordinary people for Adolf Hitler despite inner moral attitudes decrying this behavior.
The idea of bad faith is predicated on the assumption of a “gap of nothingness.”
The “gap of nothingness” concept suggests that human beings are not mere stimulus-response machines (à la behaviorism) but possess the psychological freedom needed to make responsible decisions in response to incoming stimuli. The illustration often given in undergraduate humanities courses, rightly or wrongly, is that animals will eat whenever hungry, whereas human beings usually delay eating until a personally or socially appropriate time.
I think Sartre has a very complex connotation to the term [bad faith]. Sometimes wide, sometimes narrow. Very closely related to the concept of authenticity, he has used the term to show the shackles that man chooses despite the knowledge of freedom, at least deep within. » See in context
More examples of bad faith can be found here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bad_faith_%28existentialism%29
- Tangent: Bad Faith, part 1 (lancek4.wordpress.com)
- Tangent: Bad Faith, part 2 (lancek4.wordpress.com)
- Shareholder accuses Wausau Paper CEO of ‘bad faith,’ nominates slate to board (jsonline.com)
- Sartre on Bad Faith (psychologytoday.com)
- Paul Krugman: Broccoli and Bad Faith (economistsview.typepad.com)
- The Disease (epages.wordpress.com)
- BLOG: Chinese authorities plan to take action on bad faith utility model and design patent applications (iam-magazine.com)
- Bad Faith Insurance Companies (questadj.wordpress.com)
- ECommerce company Eyemagine found guilty of reverse domain name hijacking (tldmagazine.com)
Free Will is the belief that human beings have the ability to make choices. Most philosophers advocating the belief in free will agree that personal freedom has practical limits, but not all agree that the freedom to choose is limited with regard to ethics. That is, some say that we can always choose the good, even though we may not always be able to choose certain activities.
The view that we can always choose the good, however, is complicated. As both Catholic theologians and psychiatrists will say, personal culpability for doing bad things might be lessened by such factors as peer pressure (with teenagers), stress, trauma, emotional immaturity or instability, and so-called mental illness or mental injury. Of course, just what constitutes a bad thing is not always agreed upon among theologians and psychiatrists—masturbation being a good example.¹
J.-P. Sartre called the practical limits of personal freedom ‘freedom in facticity’, meaning that individuals have a limited range of choices, particularly with regard to available opportunities and activities.² But for Sartre individuals can choose to do ethically right or wrong actions, and to give or not give consent to issues involving ethics.
Meanwhile, the Protestant Christian reformer John Calvin believed that some people are predestined for hell and others for heaven.
Who can figure!
Related Posts » Behaviorism
¹ Here’s a good comment: http://www.debatepolitics.com/archives/40072-masturbation-religion-and-psychiatry.html
² When I was at school a common example you’d hear was, “can someone in a wheelchair be a mountain climber?’ Today, however, this example doesn’t really hold up because new attitudes about persons with so-called disabilities are, in many cases, contributing to these people being seen as persons with difference. And in many instances, truly extraordinary things are being achieved by persons different from statistical norms. See, for instance, The Blind Painter (below).
- Gap of Nothingness (earthpages.wordpress.com)
- Criticism of Daniel Dennets view of Freedom, Determinism, and the Human Mind (compassioninpolitics.wordpress.com)
- Existentialism is a Humanism (philosophystone.wordpress.com)
- Whole Dude – Whole Philosophy (tarangini.wordpress.com)
- Existentialism (socyberty.com)
Individual Rights and Freedoms is an admirable political ideal that aims to defend the fundamental rights of an individual within society. However, once put into political practice, defining and upholding the idea of individual rights and freedoms usually presents an ongoing challenge.
For sociologists like Zygmunt Baumann, modern democracies exhibit an uneasy tension between individual rights on the one hand, and individual freedoms on the other hand.
The problems is this: How can individuals be perfectly free while belonging to a society which by definition requires some kind of functional interdependence? What if, for example, your neighbors’ freedom to have a party interferes with your right to sleep at night or, if you work the night shift, during the daytime?
Due to potential conflicts like these we have laws that are continually being created or modified to try to protect and promote individual rights, as well as the ideals upheld by a certain social body.
This sounds great. But some like Scott Turrow suggest that laws do not necessarily solve problems because justice systems often favor high status groups at the expense of lower status groups. And in unduly corrupt societies, legal systems tend to go lightly on some offenders while slamming others.
- What is the difference between individual rights and public order advocates and what is the main source of tension between these two perspectives (wiki.answers.com)
- Rights of an Individual Versus Duties Towards the Society (thelawfile.wordpress.com)
- Do Groups Have Any Rights? (lightandtruthonline.com)
- Salvation: Collective or Individual? (truehumanist.wordpress.com)
- AHRC and RCT launches the Asian Alliance against Torture and Ill-Treatment (AAATI) (westpapuamedia.info)
- Bullshit (lightandtruthonline.com)
- Free Nation… (torontospeaksup.wordpress.com)
- Trying to Define Criminal Law (socyberty.com)
- Christian Crees Tear Down Sweat Lodge (indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com)
- Virginia City Limits Confederate Flag-Flying (newser.com)
We just finished posting the entire Think Free database!8)
Over the past few months we’ve got all kinds of new ideas and really great suggestions from our visitors.
Now we’ll be focussing on beefing up existing and adding some new entries.
It’s a brand new day at Think Free!
Adi Da (aka Free-John, Da 1939- ) Originally Franklin Jones, Adi Da is an American guru born in Jamaica, New York. He has also gone under the names of Da Free-John, Bubba Free-John and Heartmaster Da.
Adi Da claims to have reached enlightenment at age three years. In their Dictionary of Cults, Sects, Religions and the Occult, Mather and Nichols note that this achievement did not last. In his college days Adi Da explored different forms of hedonism, to include LSD and open sex.
To this criticism Adi Da replies that his activities were an essential stage within his path of discovery.
Adi Da also says he is an incarnation of the Brahman. Like many New Age enthusiasts, he denigrates organized forms of Christianity. And like most Hindus and devotees of Hinduism, Adi Da counters the Christian claim that Jesus is the only son of God.
For Adi Da Jesus is one of many avatars or “incarnations,” not unlike that which Adi Da, himself, claims to be.
But Adi Da is not just critical of organized Christianity. He, in fact, contests all organized religions, claiming the truth of the spiritual quest may be found in one’s own heart.
To realize this apparent truth, veils of selfishness and ignorance must be recognized and dispelled.
Ironically, his California group gatherings and North American tours exhibit many of the characteristics of organized religion, with Adi Da at the center.
Listed in several cult and manipulation internet indexes, Adi Da has founded the Free Communion Church/Dawn Horse Fellowship and Laughing Man Institute.
While claiming to be beyond any particular system, he studied under and has theological affinities with several Hindu gurus, the most salient affinity being the belief in reincarnation. It has also been suggested that he possesses psi abilities and can read the thoughts of his disciples, an alleged ability known as siddhis in Hindu and Buddhist belief systems.
Some call Adi Da a religious genius, others a profound theologian and yet others suggest he’s the head of a “dysfunctional organization” for sincere but sorely misguided seekers (Source » http://www.adidaarchives.org ).
On the World Wide Web:
- http://www.adidam.org/ (Official web site)
- http://wilber.shambhala.com/html/misc/adida.cfm/ (Mixed opinion)
- http://guruphiliac.blogspot.com/2005/06/big-adi-daddi.html (Negative opinion)
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The Apostles were, for the most part, ordinary folk transformed by Jesus Christ to assist and continue in his spiritual mission.
For Christians, the number twelve suggests that the apostles are a divinely chosen group since this number parallels the twelve tribes of Israel, as outlined in the Old Testament.
Collectively the apostles are: Simon Peter, James, John, Andrew, Philip, Bartholemew (possibly Nathanael), Matthew (possibly Levi), Thomas, James the Less, Thaddaeus (possibly Judas the son of James), Simon the Zealot or Cananean, and Judas Iscariot.
Judas Iscariot, who helped with the accounting, was the one who betrayed Jesus.
Matthias was chosen to replace Judas after his death by suicide.
Paul was another later addition.
Since one apostle went bad and two new apostles were added, critics could say that the emphasis on the number twelve does not really make sense.
Biblical defenders reply with various theological arguments, which in essence say that apparent discrepancies such as these amplify rather than nullify the “Living Word.” » Bible
“Altar mosaic” by Platform 3 at http://www.flickr.com/photos/platform3/381073540/, Creative Commons License
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