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Apollinarius (The Younger, 310-390 CE) was an early Christian teacher whose views on Christ were condemned as heresy. He and his father, a grammarian, rendered the Old Testament into a poetic form reminiscent of ancient Greek verse and Platonic dialogues. This was done after the Emperor Julian forbade Christians to teach the classics.
But Apollinarius’ sense of innovation didn’t stop there. He argued that Christ and God were one and that this doctrine should be taught to the people. This might sound similar to what some Catholic priests say in passing today, but it’s very different when we look at the finer points of Catholic theology.
For Apollinarius, Christ’s human spirit was replaced by the divine Logos. As such, Christ couldn’t morally develop during his lifetime because he was already perfect. This view denied Christ’s human side. It was rejected by an orthodoxy believing that all of humanity could not be saved unless God was partly human. The movement spearheaded by Apollinarius, called Appollinarianism, could only redeem the spiritual but not the natural aspects of humanity.
The distinction between spirit and human nature continues today. More generally, it takes the form of a broad distinction between spirit and nature. Some see these two ideas as identical and others don’t. A new wrinkle in this issue is the subatomic physics observation that matter can behave like energy and vice versa. This development has lead many to speak of “matter/energy.”¹
Although Apollinarius became Bishop of Laodicea (360 CE), he was condemned by the synod at Rome (374-380 CE) and the council of Constantinople (381 CE).
¹ The centuries-old theological idea of immanence means that spirit comes into or dwells within matter but matter and spirit remain qualitatively different. This idea is found within the Catholic Holy Spirit and with variations in many world religions. Now that subatomic physicists see matter as matter/energy, it doesn’t follow that matter/energy is necessarily the same as spirit. But not everyone sees it that way. Recent observations in subatomic physics seem to have given some, like Stephen Hawking, confidence in believing that they can speak meaningfully about God and spirituality. But Hawking’s confidence seems to be more about his exceptionality in conceptual thinking than in any kind of advanced mysticism. Accordingly, his remarks arguably fall short when he speaks to ultimate meaning and purpose. However, one can’t help but admire how he’s overcome adversity, as well as his treatment of complicated scientific ideas—especially when illustrating new theories about space and time. He’s also to be commended for asking the big questions, which many people never even bother to think about.
- Apollinarius revisited (jonchadwickchambers.com)
- Mixing and Blending: The Orthodox Recipe for Theanthropos (afkimel.wordpress.com)
- St Gregory the Theologian and the Apollinarian Nonsense (afkimel.wordpress.com)
- Stephen Hawking Says Physics Would Be More Interesting If We Hadn’t Found The Higgs Boson (businessinsider.com)
- Understanding Modernity (thebackporchpundits.wordpress.com)
- Understanding the Doctrine of Soul Sleep: A Christian Overview (christianity.answers.com)
- Do ALL churches fail? (sjmarch.wordpress.com)
- Stephen Hawking: Not finding Higgs Boson would have been more interesting (mnn.com)
In Greek mythology Apollo (also called Phoebus) is the twin brother of Artemis, born of Zeus and the Titaness Leto.
He is associated with strength, order, youthfulness, light, beauty and reason, as opposed to the emotional and sometimes drug-induced frenzies relating to Dionysius.
Apollo’s chief temple and oracle was at Delphi, over which the expression, “Know Thyself” was inscribed. He obtained the rights to this temple by first killing Pytho, a serpent guarding it. There he allegedly spoke through a priestess known as the Pythia. Some believe the Pythia’s prophecies were induced by gasses (possibly methane) that naturally emerged at the site, causing her to go into a trance and speak fantasies or wisdom, depending on how you look at it.
Recent geological investigations have shown that gas emissions from a geologic chasm in the earth could have inspired the Delphic Oracle to “connect with the divine.” Some researchers suggest the possibility that ethylene gas caused the Pythia’s state of inspiration. However, Lehoux argues that ethylene is “impossible” and benzene is “crucially underdetermined.” Others argue instead that methane might have been the gas emitted from the chasm, or CO2 and H2S, arguing that the chasm itself might have been a seismic ground rupture, The idea that the Pythia spoke gibberish which was interpreted by the priests and turned into poetic iambic pentameter has been challenged by scholars such as Joseph Fontenrose and Lisa Maurizio, who argue that the ancient sources uniformly represent the Pythia speaking intelligibly, and giving prophecies in her own voice.¹
Said to create and stop plagues, Apollo was also worshipped by the Etruscans, as indicated by his statue at Veii. At Rome he was venerated as a god of healing.
Fittingly enough, NASA named one of its most successful space programs after him. From 1969 to the 1970s, Apollo, like the rational and powerful god he was once believed to be, took mankind to the moon and back—not once but several times. The lunar landing of July 20th 1969 saw Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin take the first historic steps. Some have tried to refute this achievement, saying the moon landings were a cleverly orchestrated hoax. But these claims seem spurious.
Apollo is also the name of small asteroids crossing the Earth’s orbit. In 1991 an Apollo asteroid came within 170,000 km of Earth, the nearest observed asteroid known to mankind.
- Cartoon: The Delphic Oracle (englishblog.com)
- Rediscovered Apollo data gives first measure of how fast moon dust piles up (phys.org)
- Rediscovered Apollo data gives first measure of how fast moon dust piles up (eurekalert.org)
- Apollo 13 – Exploration of the score (pwcotter.wordpress.com)
- Apollo (sorcerersskull.blogspot.com)
The term apocrypha has different meanings, according to the beliefs of those using it. These meanings can be summed up as:
- Religious texts considered inauthentic by Protestant denominations but included in the Catholic and Greek Orthodox Bibles. These extra books are found in ancient Greek and Latin versions of the Old Testament but not in the Hebrew. Hebrew versions either never existed or didn’t survive. Nobody knows for sure, neither scholars nor religious persons.
- Biblical books considered inauthentic by Catholics but included in the Greek orthodox canon.
Generally speaking, apocryphal books are considered to be of some merit but “not quite right.”
The fact that there’s overlap and difference among demoninations is interesting but hardly surprising, considering the historical development of books considered sacred in the West.
- Introducing the Apocrypha (spoiledmilks.wordpress.com)
- Context is Key (aspiringtheologian.wordpress.com)
- “A Modern Apocrypha” Now in Paperback! (beautyandbrainsblogger.wordpress.com)
- The Early Church Bookshelf (glanier.wordpress.com)
- Got Bible? (mariahaselbauer.wordpress.com)
- Was Pope Francis Talking About Purgatory? What is Purgatory? (shortlittlerebel.wordpress.com)
- Zwingli’s Influence, and His View of the Apocrypha (zwingliusredivivus.wordpress.com)
- Worth It (notoiletpaper.wordpress.com)
- Daily Bible walk: Day 289 (ispygod.net)
In Biblical and religious studies ‘apocalyptic literature’ refers to Jewish and Christian texts denoting a future time, usually an end time in which God’s justice prevails over the evils of this world.
More recently, the Mayan Calendar apparently predicted that I shouldn’t be writing this right now, because the end of the world was supposed to happen on December 21, 2012. At least, this is what many alarmists preached. When the world didn’t end, the whole idea was recast, “Oh did we say the world was going to end? No no, it was just going to transform.”
Well, anyone with a bit of sense can put one word down for that kind of ex post facto fudging. And that word is HOGWASH.
Interestingly enough, many of the early Christians believed the world would end in their lifetimes, and lived accordingly. And we find many fanatics today who jump at any catastrophe, claiming its a sign that the world is about to end. Too bad they don’t realize that the kingdom of God can be here and now, if not fully, at least tangibly.
- Predicting the Future with a Present Purpose (jonchadwickchambers.com)
- Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse in Sleepy Hollow (alexanderlang014.wordpress.com)
- An Apocalypse For Your Thoughts (vintagezen.com)
- You Should Know This For The Apocalypse. (randomrantsfrommycrazybrain.wordpress.com)
- The Apocalypse Is Here – And It’s You And Me (southweb.org)
- 4 comets in our skies, “Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse”? (prayingforoneday.wordpress.com)
- finalish name and description of the revelation book (unsettledchristianity.com)
- Accommodating Apocalypse (ahmelton.wordpress.com)
- Matthew’s Zombie Apocalypse (findingdoubt.com)
- 4 Unexpected Tech Tools to Help Survive a Zombie Apocalypse (bizsugar.com)
Aphrodite is the Greek goddess of beauty, love and fertility, worshipped throughout ancient Greece. Legend has it that she was born from the sea foam that arose at Paphos, Cyprus after Cronus had castrated Uranus and thrown the testicles (some say all the genitals) into the water.
My Classical Mythology Blog writes:
It seems surprising that the goddess of love would be sprung from such violence and mutilation, but when we explore the kind of “love” that this goddess delivers the connection makes more sense.¹
Homer says she is the wife of Hephaestus but also had romantic affairs with Ares, the god of War. From that union she became the mother of Eros. She also had sex with a human, Anchises, out of which the Trojan hero, Aeneas was born.
Primarily worshipped by women, men also took part in her cult, probably because of her role as guardian of the sea.
Although the beautiful Helen of Troy is usually blamed for the Trojan War, it was Aphrodite who bribed Paris for the prize of the Golden Apple by offering the reward of Helen, the Queen of Sparta, in the first place. So Paris abducted Helen on the – apparently – legitimate grounds of Aphrodite’s “divine” bribe.
The Roman parallel to Aphrodite is Venus.
¹ Read the rest of this excellent post here: http://mytholoblog.wordpress.com/2013/10/04/aphrodite
- Prayer to Aphrodite by Hester [Agon for Aphrodite] (sarahcoll95.wordpress.com)
- Aphrodite (kturcotte88.wordpress.com)
- Aphrodite (altair96.wordpress.com)
- Aphrodites… (deborahwalo.wordpress.com)
- Aphrodite Goddess of Lust (alyssabourgoin.wordpress.com)
- Aphrodite, that sassy lady! (asharttt.wordpress.com)
- Aphrodite (awebber26.wordpress.com)
- Aphrodite (mytholoblog.wordpress.com)
- Momus (the spir… (bdabbott.wordpress.com)
St. Anselm (of Canterbury, 1033-1109) was the somewhat undisciplined son of a noble landowner in Aosta, Italy. He eventually took monastic vows and rose among the ranks to become the archbishop of Canterbury.
St. Anselm is one of the earliest and most important scholastics of the Middle Ages. He’s best known for defining the ontological argument, a theological proof for the existence of God that is still taught in philosophy and theology courses today.
Like most theological proofs, the ontological argument seems self-evident to many believers but usually fails to convince skeptics. In the Proslogion Anselm writes that God is “something than which nothing greater can be conceived.”
So what does this mean? Let’s try to unpack it.
To be the very greatest thing imaginable, that thing must also exist in reality and not just in the mind. Therefore, so the argument goes, the greatest thing – God – is not just a concept, fantasy or hallucination. Instead, God is the greatest conceivable being which exists by necessity.
This argument was rejected on purely rational grounds by St. Thomas Aquinas who nevertheless believed in God. Aquinas believed in God. He just thought that Anselm’s argument was no good.
René Descartes used a strategy similar to Anselm’s when rescuing himself from difficulties that arose from his famous ontological argument. You’ve heard this argument, no doubt. It’s the old, “I think, therefore I am.”¹ Descartes knew that he, himself, existed, but he still wasn’t sure about the outside world. He could have lapsed into solipsism had he not further reasoned that God must be fundamentally good, so would not deceive him by presenting the mere illusion of an outer world. Instead, God created a real, outer world that is perceived by the senses—again, because God is fundamentally good and wouldn’t deceive his creatures.
But to return to St. Anselm, his view of faith and understanding is noteworthy and, one could say, reverses much of the worldly wisdom we’re continually bombarded with today. Instead of believing in something because it is comprehensible in the first place, Anselm takes another approach. He forwards these two important phrases:
- fides quaerens intellectum (faith seeking understanding)
- credo ut intelligam (I believe so that I can understand).
The second statement is based on St. Augustine’s teaching that one should believe in order to understand (crede, ut intelligas).
Taken together, these statements suggest that one must take a ‘leap of faith’ to better understand spiritual truths. For many this is an illogical or non-intellectual approach but it could be seen as logical in two related ways:
First of all, when we recognize the limits of worldly reason in understanding spiritual dynamics it arguably makes sense to, at least momentarily, cede logic to faith. This approach could possibly increase our knowledge—and we would never know otherwise unless we actually tried it.
Second, when one embraces a faith position, the inherent and greater logic of God’s ways – if actual and true – should become increasingly apparent to reason as time goes by (see, for example, Isaiah 55:6-9).
However, if the hypothesized greater logic of God’s ways does not make itself apparent after adopting a faith position, we then, after a reasonable amount of time, would have a logical, perhaps scientific, reason to reject the idea that greater intellectual understanding follows faith.
But, again, we would never know for sure and arguably would not be fully scientific unless we first tried this approach.²
¹ The British rock group The Moody Blues put an interesting twist on this argument in their 1969 lp, On the Threshold of a Dream. A voice-over at the beginning of the song “In the Beginning” says:
I think, I think I am, therefore I am, I think… [last two words are slightly quizzical]
² The Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung was the son of a Protestant clergyman who stressed that Carl should believe and not think. To his father’s dismay Jung replied, “Give me this belief” (C. G. Jung, Memories, Dreams, Reflections, revised, ed. Aniela Jaffé, trans. Richard and Clara Winston, New York: Vintage Books, 1961, p. 43). And this spells out the difference in emphasis between the gnostic who believes they know vs. the believer who strives to know or, perhaps, know more.
- Teach My Heart – A Prayer of St Anselm (inconversion.wordpress.com)
- St. Anselm’s Prayer (jbuworshiparts.wordpress.com)
- Anselmiana (thesearewaters.wordpress.com)
- Why Descartes’ “Proof” of the Existence of God is Fallacious (existentialistcowboy.blogspot.com)
- I Believe in God (thoughtsofacatholicscientist.wordpress.com)
- Researchers claim to have proven that God exists (dnaindia.com)
- Two Germans with a MacBook prove that God exists (whyevolutionistrue.wordpress.com)
- Faith as the Possibility of Reason in Anselm’s Monologion (tyndalelibrary.wordpress.com)
The animus presents itself to consciousness in a series of archetypal images. Usually a primitive, sexual figure emerges first. As a woman progresses, the initial primitive symbol is followed by a series of increasingly refined, “higher” images.
Jung says the animus may take either a dark or light form. Like all symbols, it mediates destructive or creative forces from the depths of the unconscious. The negative animus has been symbolized by figures like Frankenstein, the Werewolf, Faust and Dr. Jekyll‘s evil counterpart, Mr. Hyde. And it’s, perhaps, been historically embodied by maniacal types such as Jack the Ripper and Diocletian.
The positive animus is symbolized by the male heroes of world myth. It is incarnated in wrestling figures like The Rock (lower, more sensual form), the Romantic poet Shelly (higher level of eros), Winston Churchill (societal or cultural hero), and Mahatma Gandhi (spiritual exemplar).
Critics of Jung’s archetypal psychology tend to say his theories about gender are far too generalized, sexist and metaphysical.¹
¹ See for instance, Naomi R. Goldenberg, Changing of the Gods: Feminism and the End of Traditional Religions.
Related Posts » Anima
- Psychology in Writing: Anima and Animus – Introduction (wtjowett.wordpress.com)
- Ever been kidnapped by a dreamer? (allthesnoozethatsfittoprint.wordpress.com)
- Anima & Animus in Popular Music with Dr. Dennis Merritt, the… (prweb.com)
- Week 4 – The Creative Psyche (declantiercreativity.wordpress.com)
- Anima, Animus and Tao (feedproxy.google.com)
- Anima/Animus in Wuthering Heights (pridewritlarge.wordpress.com)
- The Holy (inner) Family: mother, wise old man, child, shadow, anima/animus (immanence.net)
- Purifying Your Relationships (The Anima and the Animus) Step three (soulfullofpassion.wordpress.com)
- Assassin’s Creed IV: Animus Database (orcz.com)
The Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung was a clever guy. Whenever he created a new concept, he almost always adapted previously existing ideas. This gave his overall theory a kind of historical resonance and, one could say, mythic appeal.
The same strategy is often used by rock stars, film and TV producers, fiction writers and corporations (e.g. Alice in Chains, The Omega Man, Stargate Atlantis, East of Eden, Apple Records and Apple Inc).
Jung’s idea of the anima is no exception. Historically, the word anima may refer to:¹
- the Latin term for the “animating principle”, see vitalism
- the Latin translation of Greek psyche
- Aristotle’s treatise on the soul, de anima
- in Christian contexts, the soul
In Jung’s psychological theory the anima is the unconscious contrasexual component of the male Self—that is, the man’s supposed “inner woman.” The anima presents itself to consciousness in a series of archetypal images, with a primitive sexual figure usually emerging first. As a man develops, this primitive symbol is followed by increasingly refined, “higher” images.
Jung says the anima has dark and light forms. Like all symbols, it mediates both destructive and creative forces from the depths of the unconscious.
An example of the negative anima would be dreaming of a leather-clad Whipping Mistress who beats and binds male victims into submission. Some activists for contemporary sadomasochism movements claim that their behavior represents a socially safe redirection or “playing out” of the negative anima. However, many places where this kind of activity occurs are designated as “Common Bawdy Houses” and remain illegal. Another instance of the negative anima could be The Wicked Witch of the West or the blood-dripping Hindu goddess Kali, for whom horrific animal sacrifices regularly take place at Kali temples in India.
Jungian thought maintains that such images (and related practices) contain enormous potential for psychological growth, providing their energy is understood and positively redirected by the conscious ego.
Positive anima symbols would be the archetypal image of the Fairy Godmother or the Chinese Goddess of Mercy, Kwan Yin.
Historical embodiments of destructive anima-power arise in ruthless figures whose negative archetypal power dominates consciousness, such as Queen “Bloody” Mary of England. On the other hand, benevolent figures like Lady Diana Spencer and Mother Teresa each in their own way represent positive incarnations of the anima figure.
Jung also sees the Blessed Virgin Mary as a positive anima figure. For Jung, Jesus’ mother Mary is nothing more than an archetypal symbol of a vague “feminine principle.” Like other theories and belief systems claiming to embrace all religions within their own perspective, Jung’s rendering on this central aspect of Catholicism differs dramatically from the Catholic view, itself. And on this point Jung has been roundly criticized for simplifying complex religious and mythological data to suit his own purposes.
- Carl Jung on the “Dechristianlzation” of our world… (carljungdepthpsychology.blogspot.com)
- Week 4 – Active Imagination (hoffmantoby.wordpress.com)
- Anima (wingsinvite.com)
- De-tri-tus (enchantedseashells.com)
- Remembering James Hillman (thefirstgates.com)
- Sharing the Anima Series: Inspirational (inspirationsetc.com)
Around the 6th century CE Pseudo-Dionysus the Areopagite‘s The Celestial Hierarchy outlined three groups of hierarchically arranged angels. And angels are mentioned in the Jewish Kabbala as inhabiting seven heavenly halls.
Both Jewish and Christian (especially Catholic and Baptist) cosmologies differentiate angels from gods—unlike gods, angels are never worshipped. Instead angels are revered or called upon as beings created by God.
However, the study of world religions is far from easy. And misunderstandings and uncertainties lead many to question this difference. For example, some gods in the Zoroastrian Avesta or the Hindu pantheon are worshipped as deities subservient to or representing a single God. And some casual observers liken these to angels without asking if the character and function of angels and gods could possibly differ.
In a somewhat Christianized Neoplatonism we find that Proclus (4th century CE) adapts ancient Greek philosophy in relation to otherworldly beings:
In the commentaries of Proclus (4th century, under Christian rule) on the Timaeus of Plato, Proclus uses the terminology of “angelic” (aggelikos) and “angel” (aggelos) in relation to metaphysical beings. According to Aristotle, just as there is a First Mover, so, too, must there be spiritual secondary movers.¹
Mystically inclined Christians tend to believe that angels are slightly more dignified than human beings, as evident in the Old Testament:
What is man that you are mindful of him,
the son of man that you care for him?
You made him a little lower than the angels (Hebrews 2:6-8 NIV).
Gnostics, on the other hand, generally regard human beings as superior to angels. For Gnostics, angels serve God by serving humanity.
Jewish apocalyptic literature tells the story of the fall of the angel Satan – the author of all lies and evil – and his dark angels in terms of their unwillingness to humble themselves before mankind. And Jesus Christ sees Satan fall in the New Testament story:
I watched Satan fall from heaven like a flash of lightning” (Luke 10:18).
Contemporary beliefs about angels take a different tone from the more traditional understanding. Some writers suggest that the warm, loving presence of angelic beings can be felt in every part of the body, almost like a romantic, sensual relationship.
This idea is found in the 19th century novel Ardath: The Story of a Dead Self by Marie Corelli (1889):
And by and by, as each mellifluous stanza sounded softly on his ears, a strangely solemn tranquility swept over him,–a most soothing halcyon calm, as though some passing angel’s hand had touched his brow in benediction…Ah! ’tis a glittering pathway in the skies whereon men and the angels meet and know each other! …she stretched out her hands toward him: “Speak to me, dearest one!” she murmured wistfully–”Tell me,–am I welcome?” “O exquisite humility!–O beautiful maiden-timid hesitation! Was she,–even she, God’s Angel, so far removed from pride, as to be uncertain of her lover’s reception of such a gift of love? Roused from his half-swooning sense of wonder, he caught those gentle hands, and laid them tenderly against his breast,–tremblingly, and all devoutly, he drew the lovely, yielding form into his arms, close to his heart,–with dazzled sight he gazed down into that pure, perfect face, those clear and holy eyes shining like new- created stars beneath the soft cloud of clustering fair hair!
And yet Corelli also mentions the stunning beauty of evil angels:
His countenance, darkly threatening and defiant, was yet beautiful with the evil beauty of a rebellious and fallen angel.
Throughout history many believe they have been guided by a guardian angel.
St. Basil writes,
Beside each believer stands an angel as protector and shepherd leading him to life (Catholic Catechism, par 336).
The philosopher Leibniz (1646 – 1716) claimed that angels communicate with a universal language, and began to develop a universal symbolic language that would help human beings communicate among universities.²
The Roman Catholic catechism doesn’t place too much emphasis on angels but does affirm their existence as servants of God and man.
From its beginning until death, human life is surrounded by their watchful care and intercession (Catholic Catechism, par 336).
Glorifying God, Catholic angels are said to be spiritual powers whose perfection – in contrast to Gnostic belief – surpasses that of human beings. Created by God, Catholic angels are inferior to Christ and the prophets but nearer to God, making them higher than human beings.
As for the contemporary notion that angels and aliens (ETs) are simply different cultural representations of the same basic essence, the American evangelist Billy Graham, among others, insists that angels and aliens are mutually exclusive.³
² Geert Lovink says “Leibniz also philosophized about a computer based on a binary numerical system. In 1679 he wrote, ”Despite its length, the binary system, in other words counting with 0 and 1, is scientifically the most fundamental system, and leads to new discoveries. When numbers are reduced to 0 and 1, a beautiful order prevails everywhere” (See “The Archeology of Computer Assemblage” 1992 at http://www.mediamatic.net/article-8664-en.html).
- Fallen Angel (reeablog.wordpress.com)
- “Fools rush in where angels fear to tread” (markatstpauls.wordpress.com)
- When a Politician Lies, an Angel Gets His Wings #tgdn #tcot (politicalbrian.wordpress.com)
- Gaurdian angel? (tiaralewis67.wordpress.com)
- Chuck Missler: Return Of The Nephilim! The Biblical Perspective on the Modern UFO-Alien Phenomena! (socioecohistory.wordpress.com)
Anathema is a term with Koiné Greek roots. Koiné Greek is an ancient form of Greek that was prevalent in the ancient world, having spread along with the conquests of Alexander the Great (4th century BCE). Koiné Greek is also the language of the New Testament and early Church Fathers.
The meaning of anathema is slightly ambiguous in some contexts, mainly because the word evolved over the centuries, leaving room for interpretation by experts. Anathema can mean something offered up to the gods or, alternately, to God. In the case of the gods, the offering can be be unholy. So one meaning of anathema, the most commonly understood today, is an offering “dedicated to evil.”
A good example of a currently debated instance of the word anathema is found in 1 Corinthians 16:22, where St. Paul says “If any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be Anathema Maranatha.”
The word “anathema” in 1 Corinthians 16:22 might suggest that they who love not the Lord are objects of loathing and execration to all holy beings; they are unrepentant of a crime that merits the severest condemnation; they are exposed to the sentence of “everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord” for they do not embrace saving beliefs, as was the sentence of all mankind before the atonement, justification and sanctification of the blood of Christ that allowed for the redemption of sins. Alternatively, the Apostle Paul could be suggesting that those who do not love the Lord should be offered up to God.¹
In Catholicism it came to mean a severe denunciation of some theological idea or practice contrary to orthodox teaching, and usually the complete separation of the culpable person or persons from the saving power of the Church. Essentially, this meant that guilty parties were condemned to eternal hellfire with Satan and his demons lest he or she repent and display obedience to the Church.
The first instance of anathema as applied to “heretics” is found in 306 CE at the Council of Elvira, where it soon became the preferred terminology for cutting religious deviants off from the alleged saving power of the Church. In short, anathema meant total excommunication. With its newfound bent for systematizing, the 5th century Church made a distinction between anathema and “minor” excommunication.
In 1983 the Code of Canon Law replaced the now archaic word anathema with excommunication.
Anathema is also the name of a British rock band from Liverpool, originally called Pagan Angel.
- THE POWER OF ANATHEMA Written by Vladimir Moss (mediolanum.me)
- An Eleventh Hour Conversion: A Story of Delayed Harvest (ilyston.wordpress.com)
- THE DOGMA OF PAPAL INFALLIBILITY by Randolph Harrison McKim (ilyston.wordpress.com)
- In harmony with this spirit the Gnosis… (carljungdepthpsychology.blogspot.com)
- When Classics students talk with Theology students (fishedup.wordpress.com)
- New Photos of CARCASS, IMMOLATION, ANATHEMA, ALCEST Posted (metalinjection.net)