Category Archives: E
Exodus is the second book of the Pentateuch (and Old Testament of the Christian Bible). It outlines God’s punishment of the Egyptians and Israel’s departure from bondage in Egypt, facilitated by the miraculous parting of the Red Sea, and their subsequent travel through the wilderness, as led by God through the intercession of the prophet Moses.
Although no Egyptian historical records tell of the parting of the Red Sea and Israel’s escape from captivity, the New Oxford Annotated Bible claims
There can be little doubt that the story rests upon actual historical occurrences.¹
Other respected, mainstream scholars concur that, while it was once fashionable to give too much credence to the alleged historicity of Jewish scriptures and, later, to conversely discount them as myth,
It is reasonable to believe that a good part of the biblical stories have a historical background.²
¹ New Oxford Annotated Bible , 1991, p. 69.
² Mircea Eliade, Ioan Couliano and Hillary S. Wiesner, The Eliade Guide to World Religions, New York: HarperCollins, 1991, p. 169.
- Couliano – Eliade guide to world religions (celclibrary.wordpress.com)
- Mircea Eliade (earthpages.wordpress.com)
- Why is obscure Bible verse from Exodus trending on Twitter? (religion.blogs.cnn.com)
- The Bible in Our World (Lesson 2) (thebiblemeditator.wordpress.com)
- Exodus 23:1: The Bible Verse Inspiring Rap Lyrics – and a Rap Feud (entertainment.time.com)
- How did Moses part the Red Sea? (blueline2011.wordpress.com)
- Lineage of Moses and Aaron (Exodus 6:13 – 27) (refreshmyheartinchrist.wordpress.com)
To some, existentialism is a bleak philosophical worldview. To others, it’s the only sane solution to a seemingly insane world. Existentialism most visible originator is probably Søren Kierkegaard but its best known proponent is Jean-Paul Sartre.
Sartre put a lot of very basic ideas into catchy phrases and hence made a celebrity out of himself. And this exemplifies what existentialism is all about: The creation of meaning and purpose from a human world said to be meaningless and uprooted from nature.
According to Sartre, one creates meaning and purpose out of absurdity by choosing to make commitments to an ideal or movement deemed worthwhile.
Unlike animals supposedly bound by stimulus and response, Sartre says a “gap of nothingness” that lies between our present and past means that we are able to choose. Thus we’re “condemned to be free.”
Existentialism was in vogue in the late 1950′s and 1960′s among beatniks, hippies, journalists and academics. As David Bowie rather amusingly puts it in the song “Join the gang” (1967):
Let me introduce you to the gang
Johnny plays the sitar, he’s an existentialist
Once he had a name, now he plays our game
You won’t feel so good now that you’ve joined the gang
Sartre’s stardom in the halls of academia was generally succeeded by Karl Marx in the 1970s, by the postmoderns in the 1980s, and by the likes of Wittgenstein and Noam Chomsky in the 1990s. Other famous existentialists include Simone de Beauvoir (1908-86) and Albert Camus (1913-60).
- Sartre Quotes at Thinkexist.com
- Day 15,463. Existential Rabbits. (grousendale.wordpress.com)
- Existentialism (socyberty.com)
- RCMP eyed philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre during tense Quebec political upheaval (theglobeandmail.com)
- Shortcutting… Existentialism (shortcutting.wordpress.com)
- A review of Jean-Paul Sartre’s ‘Nausea’ (tobagostars.wordpress.com)
- Canadian spies tracked philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre during Quebec political upheaval (news.nationalpost.com)
- Sartre’s Existentialism (egographia000.wordpress.com)
- Jean-Paul Sartre, the apostle of absurdity… (integratedcatholiclife.org)
In Catholicism excommunication is a separation of an individual from the saving power of the Catholic Church due to a serious theological idea or practice deemed contrary to the Church. The excommunicated may not participate in the sacraments nor associate with the community of believers.
Historically speaking, “the term (excommunicatus— ἀκοινώνητος) first appeared in Church documents in the fourth century.”¹ Minor excommunications were conducted by local bishops for associating with an excommunicated Catholic. Major excommunication is carried out by the Pope in an official ceremony.
Excommunication is terminated upon repentance and satisfying the demands of the Church, at which point the once condemned person is received again and fully recognized as a Catholic. As the Catholic Encyclopedia puts it:
It is also a medicinal rather than a vindictive penalty, being intended, not so much to punish the culprit, as to correct him and bring him back to the path of righteousness.²
Excommunication is not exclusive to Catholicism; various forms are found in most world religions.³
¹ LAWLOR, F. X., and T. J. GREEN. “Excommunication.” New Catholic Encyclopedia. 2nd ed. Vol. 5. Detroit: Gale, 2003. 504-506. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 29 May 2012.
³ This Wikipedia entry gives a good overview of the situation among various faith groups » http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Excommunication
Related Posts » Anathema
- Catholic Church Excommunicates Mother, Doctors Of 9yr old Rape Victim (lezgetreal.com)
- (Anti)Pope Hans I And His Enablers (mundabor.wordpress.com)
- Women and the Catholic Church (episyllogism.wordpress.com)
- From Fr. Z’s Blog: A deacon responds to a gushy women’s ordination propaganda (deaconjohnspace.wordpress.com)
- Austria: Martha’s Mass risks excommunication (mumbailaity.wordpress.com)
- Pope Benedict Likely To Allow Breakaway SSPX To Rejoin Church (freeinternetpress.com)
- Things That Make Me Stabby……Vatican Edition (passthedoucheys.com)
- Brazil: Catholic Church Excommunicates Mother Of 9 Year-Old Rape Victim For Approving Abortion (brandtstandard.com)
- List of people excommunicated by the Roman Catholic Church
Excalibur is the legendary sword of King Arthur, often said in traditional and contemporary¹ lore to have magical powers.
In Malory’s Morte d’Arthur the young boy Arthur succeeds in pulling the sword from a stone, a seemingly impossible feat which not even adults can accomplish. In another account the sword is given to Arthur by the Lady of the Lake.
As Arthur is dying he commands Sir Bedivere to toss the sword into the lake and a mysterious hand grasps it, drawing it under the surface. In an older version of the legend by Geoffrey of Monmouth, Arthur’s sword is known as Caliburn.
¹ Such as the TV series Merlin » http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1199099/ and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merlin_%28TV_series%29
Related Posts » Avalon
- C is for Clarent a.k.a. The Sword in the Stone (adventurearchives.blogspot.com)
- E is for Excalibur (adventurearchives.blogspot.com)
- Book Excerpt – Excalibur (mercedesjoubert.wordpress.com)
- Exclusive Video: Excalibur Revealed in the Merlin Season Finale (seattlepi.com)
- The Dark Ages (raptorsclaw.wordpress.com)
- The Origins of the Legend (wolfslair88.wordpress.com)
- Book Review: The Bones of Avalon by Phil Rickman (procrastin8or.wordpress.com)
- Merlin Season 5 Information [Potential Spoilers] (techfleece.com)
- The Lady of the Lake (thisisidiom.wordpress.com)
In one version of two found in the Biblical book of Genesis, Eve is the first woman created by God from Adam’s rib.
According to the Bible story, Adam and Eve originally lived in an innocent state of grace, characterized by their blissful life in Eden. God directly told them that they could eat anything in the garden except for fruit from the tree of knowledge at the garden’s center. Eve, however, was tempted by the clever and subtle serpent to eat from the tree of knowledge. The evil serpent said that her eating the fruit of of the tree would enable the first woman and man to become like gods, “knowing the difference between good and evil.”
Eve ate the forbidden fruit and then tempted Adam, who also ate. Suddenly they recognized their nakedness, lost their innocence and felt ashamed. They immediately covered their now-private areas with leaves. God their creator was stirred to great anger and thrust them out of the garden. He stationed an angel with a flaming sword at the garden’s entrance to ensure their banishment.
Women in general were cursed to suffer during childbirth and the harsh realities of suffering and mortality were imposed on mankind.
Scholars note that the story is likely influenced by or adapted from similar ancient Near-Eastern myths. Christian theologians are well aware of this idea. But they maintain that it does not necessarily contradict the idea that the Bible is a revealed text.¹
¹ For a Catholic position claiming that all sacred scripture is without error, see http://www.catholicculture.org/culture/library/view.cfm?recnum=8441. On the role of interpretation, see http://catholic-resources.org/ChurchDocs/PBC_Interp-FullText.htm. And on the importance of understanding scripture through the door of faith, see http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/apost_exhortations/documents/hf_ben-xvi_exh_20100930_verbum-domini_en.html#The_Interpretation_Of_Sacred_Scripture__In_The_Church
- Eden (earthpages.wordpress.com)
- Eden – The First Earth-Home (brakeman1.com)
- Our free will (welcomingjesus.wordpress.com)
- Not That Tree! (susangray2011.wordpress.com)
- Bible Challenge – “GARDEN OF EDEN” (pjsprayerline.blogspot.com)
- All About Eve (chronicle.com)
- Too Soon? (withapology.wordpress.com)
- The Garden of Eden: Between two trees (onedaringjew.wordpress.com)
Euripides (480-406 BCE) was a Greek dramatist, born in Athens. As a youth he was an athlete, winning prizes at Eleusinian and Thesean gymnastic events. After studying philosophy under Anaxagoras (along with his friend Socrates), rhetoric under Prodicus and dabbling in painting, Euripides realized that literature was his forté.
Euripides is identified with theatrical innovations that have profoundly influenced drama down to modern times, especially in the representation of traditional, mythical heroes as ordinary people in extraordinary circumstances. This new approach led him to pioneer developments that later writers adapted to comedy, some of which are characteristic of romance. Yet he also became “the most tragic of poets”,[nb 1] focusing on the inner lives and motives of his characters in a way previously unknown.¹
He wrote some 80 dramas, out of which 19 remain. Medea, Electra, and Trojan Women were performed during his lifetime but his work became increasingly popular after his death. The Bacchae, for instance, was performed in Athens only after he had died.
Euripides is also relevant to contemporary psychiatry and, in particular, depth psychology. His play Heracles (416 BCE) most effectively personifies Madness as the daughter of Heaven and Night, sent to drive Heracles insane:
Madness has mounted her chariot
Groans and tears accompany her
She plies the lash, hell-bent for murder
rage gleaming from her eyes
A Gorgon of the night, and around her
Bristle the hissing heads of a hundred snakes²
Fully versed in the myths and legends that permeated his culture, he was also aware of the Sophists and the early scientists and philosophers like Anaxagoras.³ So Euripides didn’t buy into but, rather, satirized the popular religion of his day. He did believe in the idea of divine providence but was skeptical of many of the religious beliefs and practices that dominated the ancient Greek world.
Put simply, he preferred to find his own answers to questions concerning ultimate truth. As such, he’s been called ’the poet of the Greek enlightenment,’ among a variety of other things by his detractors and admirers.4
² Euripides, cited in Eric Flaum and David Pandy, The Encyclopedia of Mythology: Gods, Heroes, and Legends of the Greeks and Romans, Philadelphia, Courage Books, 1993, p. 99.
³ Peter Burian ” Euripides ” The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome. Ed. Michael Gagarin. © Oxford University Press 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome: (e-reference edition). Oxford University Press. Toronto Public Library. 25 May 2012 http://www.oxford-greecerome.com/entry?entry=t294.e458
Related Posts » Madness
- Electra (earthpages.wordpress.com)
- Masterpiece Monday: Medea (bookclubbabe.wordpress.com)
- Theater Review: “The Bacchae” at Artisphere (washingtonian.com)
- Ancient Athens and the LCA – the similarity between women and slaves (katieandmartin.wordpress.com)
- Dionysus Devotional Art I (journeythroughtheobsidiandream.wordpress.com)
The Eurythmics are a British pop duo formed in 1980, consisting of Annie Lennox and Dave Stewart. Although the pair has formally disbanded, they have occasionally reunited.
Eurythmics’ pulsating electronic rhythms and haunting melodies helped to set a standard for 1980s synth pop. The lyrics depict themes of alienation and the spiritual quest, often from a much needed woman’s perspective. Because the music relies heavily on synthesizers, Eurythmics took some criticism from old school musicians preferring ‘real instruments.’
Today that type of criticism doesn’t hold up. Computer processors are just as much a part of ‘real instruments’ as any other kind of man-made component, be it the pickups of an electric guitar or the mechanisms within a Renaissance harpsichord.
Eurythmics used “real instruments” to great effect however later in their career, with such hits as Thorn in my side, and Missionary Man, our drummer Pete Phipps toured with them, and they could kick some a** with the best rock bands. » See in context
Lennox continued with a successful solo career in the 1990s, including the exceptional CD, Diva. The duo of Lennox and Stewart have periodically reunited in the new millennium for benefit concerts and albums but Eurythmics’ creative genius arguably peaked in the 80s.
Related Posts » Rock and Roll
- Ringo Starr & Eurythmics’ Dave Stewart Making Movie Musical (wdok.radio.com)
- Fitz And The Tantrums Treat Coachella To Cover Of Eurythmics Of “Sweet Dreams” (kroq.radio.com)
- Cinedigm Signs Eurythmics’ Dave Stewart To Produce Documentaries For Theaters (deadline.com)
- This Date in History: Arson (929dave.radio.com)
- Popdose Flashback ’92: Annie Lennox, “Diva” (popdose.com)
- Marilyn Manson Covers Eurythmics “Sweet Dreams” (rgcred.wordpress.com)
Eurydice is a female figure in Greek myth. Among variants, the best known Eurydice in Greek myth is a tree or water nymph and wife of Orpheus. When the god Aristaeus tried to rape her, she fled to escape his advances. While fleeing she was bitten by a poisonous snake, died within hours and descended to Hades.
Her husband Orpheus later journeyed to Hades hoping to rescue her. Orpheus used the musical beauty of his lyre to wrest Eurydice from the underworld’s Lord of Death, the giant three-headed dog Cerberus. But like Lot’s wife, and against a dire warning to not look behind while escaping, Orpheus cast a glance backward, losing Eurydice forever.
The name Eurydice first appears on pottery in the 4th century BCE.¹ Although possibly orally present for centuries, they myth of Orpheus’ descent into the underworld to rescue Eurydice was not fully written down until the first century BCE, when Roman poets immortalized the tale through written verse.²
Plato criticizes Orpheus in his Symposium for trying to rescue Eurydice through music instead of sheer courage.³
In other variants of the myth Orpheus attempts to save Eurydice from Persephone. The scene of Orpheus attempting to rescue Eurydice is depicted in Neoclassical art, most notably by Nicolas Poussin.
Eurydice is also known as one of the daughters of Apollo.
¹ Richard L. Hunter “Eurydice” The Oxford Classical Dictionary, © Oxford University Press 1996, 2000.
² Sarah Hitch “Orpheus and Eurydice” The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome. Ed. Michael Gagarin. © Oxford University Press 2010. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome: (e-reference edition). Oxford University Press. Toronto Public Library. 22 May 2012 http://www.oxford-greecerome.com/entry?entry=t294.e907
On the Web:
- Poussin, Nicolas: Landscape with Orpheus and Eurydice » http://artchive.com/artchive/P/poussin/orpheus_and_eurydice.jpg.html
- City Opera Revives Telemann (and Itself) with Orpheus (wqxr.org)
- City Opera’s Unabashed Underworld (nytimes.com)
- Seattle Opera’s ‘Orpheus’ is a love story for all time (seattletimes.nwsource.com)
- Review: Stagecraft dominates ‘Orpheus and Eurydice’ (seattletimes.nwsource.com)
- Rilke’s “Orpheus. Eurydice. Hermes” In 3-D (Created by Jeremy Gillam) (disquietreservations.blogspot.com)
- 3-Sheet, Lobby Banners Printed for Seattle Opera (washingtongraphics.wordpress.com)
The Eucharist (Greek eucharistia = thanksgiving) is a sacrament, also called Holy Communion (Catholic) and the Lord’s Supper (Protestant), in which Jesus is believed to be present under bread and wine.
It is based on the New Testament account of the Last Supper, in which Jesus asks his disciples to take and eat bread and wine in order to remember him (1 Corinthians 11.23-5; Matthew 26.26-8; Mark 14.22-4; Luke 22.17-20).
The bread and wine are consecrated by a priest or, in Protestantism, a minister and is given to disciples. Theological differences arise among different Christian groups as to whether the bread and wine become the real presence of Christ, coexist with the real presence of Christ or serve as mere symbols.
Drawing on a distinction from Aristotelian logic, Catholic theology indicates that the essence of the bread and wine are transformed but not the observable form. Moreover, Catholicism adheres to the position known as ex opere operato (by the action performed), which indicates that the sacrament is always effective when administered by a consecrated priest, regardless of the moral condition of his soul at the time.
If one believes that we’re all born with the taint of original sin and remain imperfect throughout our lives, ex opere operato seems a reasonable and, indeed, necessary position.
- Evening Mass of Thursday of the Lord’s Supper (doohan.id.au)
- Does John 6:63 Refute the Real Presence? (catholicdefense.blogspot.com)
- “I think I understand how the typical Protestant feels… (insightscoop.typepad.com)
- Gluten free and inclusive communion / eucharist / Lord’s Supper (loveandbelief.wordpress.com)
- GUEST ARTICLE:Augustine On The Eucharist By Dr. Joseph Mizzi (faithinspires.wordpress.com)
- The Eucharist and the Old Covenant (PrayTheMass.org)
- 40 Reasons Why It’s Cool to be Catholic #2 The Eucharist (deaconcast.com)
- Remembering, Being, and Becoming: Time and the Mass (PrayTheMass.org)
- The Eucharist in Wesleyan Chrsitianity (johnmeunier.wordpress.com)
- “Do You WANT The Eucharist to be True?” (catholicdefense.blogspot.com)
Ethics is a branch of knowledge and philosophical inquiry concerned with moral ideals, choices and the good or bad actions which may or may not follow from those choices.
Ethics may focus on personal, social and spiritual issues, separately but often in relation to one another.
Within world religions, ethical decrees might seem fixed within a given faith tradition. But various schools of interpretation usually coexist, usually with some degree of tension—e.g. the Protestant acceptance of female and in some instances homosexual ministers vs. the Catholic rule of an exclusively male priesthood and homosexual acts being specified in the catechism as “intrinsically disordered.”¹
- Kant of Ga.: Bentham Mill: Normative ethics – Britannica.com (humeofga.wordpress.com)
- The Universal vs. the Particular (aleksandreia.com)
- My Take: What the Bible really says about homosexuality (religion.blogs.cnn.com)
- CFP: Conference on Metaphysics and Ethics, East and West (warpweftandway.wordpress.com)
- Emotions and Ethics: A Foucauldian framework for becoming an ethical educator (2012) (foucaultnews.wordpress.com)