Search Results for freud
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was a Jew of Austrian parentage and the founder of psychoanalysis. He studied medicine in Vienna and then neurology and psychopathology. He was marginalized by the medical community for his interest in the idea of infant sexuality. Today he, perhaps ironically, is often frowned on as a reductionist.
Freud remains one of the great innovators of the modern age. He attempted to scientifically outline the idea of the unconscious which formerly had been represented in literature, philosophy and nineteenth-century occultism.
His psychoanalytic techniques of free association and abreaction were influenced by several other contemporaneous “doctors of the mind,” most notably Jean-Martin Charcot, but Freud made them uniquely his own.
His works were almost entirely destroyed by the occupying Nazis. In 1938 he reluctantly withdrew from Vienna to London, leaving behind several sisters, all of whom died in concentration camps.
A habitual cigar-smoker, his relationship with his daughter Anna became extremely close; she acted as secretary, friend and confidant. Freud eventually contracted jaw cancer but refused pain-killers because they dulled his mind and interfered with his work.
After Freud’s death Anna further elaborated on the idea of defense mechanisms, distinguishing herself as an important thinker in her own right.
Related Posts » Catharsis, Cathexis, Censor, Civilization and its Discontents, Ego, Electra Complex, Eros, Fromm (Erich), Icebox effect, Id, Jung (Carl Gustav), Klein (Melanie), Moses and Monotheism, Neurosis, Object, Oedipus Complex, Parapraxes, Pleasure Principle, Psychopath, Psychosis, Reality Principle, Repression, Sadism, Masochism, Secondary Revision, Stages of Psychosexual Development, Superego, Thanatos, The Future of an Illusion, Unconscious
- Mortensen tackles loquacious Sigmund Freud (upi.com)
- My hero: Sigmund Freud (guardian.co.uk)
- A DANGEROUS METHOD Blu-ray Review (collider.com)
- Sigmund Freud’s Theory of Personality Traits (marlenebertrand.wordpress.com)
- The Psychodynamic Theory (socyberty.com)
- Freud (ackermansketchpad.blogspot.com)
- Fictionalizing Sigmund Freud’s baby sister (macleans.ca)
- The Question of God – C.S.Lewis and Freud (rodiagnusdei.wordpress.com)
- Taproot Theatre imagines if Sigmund Freud and C.S. Lewis came to tea (phinneywood.com)
Anna Freud (1895-1982) was the daughter of Sigmund Freud and an important psychoanalytic thinker particularly in the area of child psychoanalysis. Her The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defence (1936) elaborated on her father’s idea of defense mechanisms.
- Me, Myself, and My Ego (theconfluencecountdown.com)
- A DANGEROUS METHOD Blu-ray Review (collider.com)
- Sigmund Freud’s Theory of Personality Traits (marlenebertrand.wordpress.com)
- My hero: Sigmund Freud (guardian.co.uk)
Akhenaton was the first ruler in recorded history to advocate a type of monotheism. Originally Amenhotep IV, this 18th dynasty Egyptian King changed his title to Akhenaton (“it is well with Aton”) and reigned from 1350-1334 BCE.
Akhenaton replaced the many Egyptian deities, particularly Amun, with the sun god Aton. While this was a type of monotheism, worshipping a solar deity clearly differs from worshipping a wholly-other creator God. Along these lines, Sigmund Freud, in perhaps his weakest writings, compared Akhenaton to the Jewish prophet Moses.
The debate continues, however, as to what the ancient depictions of Aton actually depicted. Some scholars adhere to the limited solar cosmology while others, mostly New Age enthusiasts and so-called fringe theorists, suggest a more universal conception of the godhead. This debate calls to mind R. C. Zaehner’s distinction between theism and pantheism, a distinction he’s not alone in making, but one which still eludes many thinkers who lump all things and all paths into one gelatinous whole.
Akhenaton, himself, became self-aggrandized to the point of proclaiming himself as the only true mediator of Aton. This is surprising because a good number of artistic depictions of Akhenaton from this period learn toward realism, stressing human detail rather than godlike or saintly gloss. Prior to Akhenaton, Egyptian rulers were depicted in stylized, refined forms. Akhenaton, however, is sometimes visibly unattractive, marking a first for Egyptian art and influencing realism in general.
Akhenaton’s most well-known wife was Nefertiti. Together they rode in grand and imposing public processions, demanding servility and worship as their carriages passed by onlookers.
But for all his grandiose pretensions, Akhenaton had little interest in international politics. Eerdmans Bible Dictionary points out that “during his reign Egypt lost control of its provinces in Syria and Palestine.”¹ And the Amarna letters (inscribed tablets showing diplomatic records) tell us that he was preoccupied with domestic affairs and neglected the city-states of Palestine, leaving them in chaos, a chaos marked by conflict among local chieftains, turmoil and open rebellion.
¹ Eerdmans Bible Dictionary, ed. Allen C. Myers, 1987, p. 35, 46.
- Kemetic Roots: King Tut Series Coming to Spike TV (atlantablackstar.com)
- Egypt exhibits surviving artefacts (bbc.co.uk)
- Spotlight & Author Interview for The Lightbearers (sunmountainreviews.wordpress.com)
- Akhenaten: Egyptian Pharaoh, Nefertiti’s Husband, Tut’s Father (livescience.com)
- Did Ancient Egypt’s Queen Hatshepsut Accidentally Poison Herself? (theblaze.com)
- The Key to Egyptian Magic, Part II (isiopolis.com)
- Greco-Egyptian Athiratu (thehouseofvines.com)
The main objective of commercial advertising is to sell goods and services, but achieving this goal is anything but simple.
Social theorists directly or indirectly influenced by Karl Marx usually say that advertising creates a “false” or “illusory” relationship between the consumer and the producer.
Freudian-based sociological analyses suggest that when buying, the consumer enters into a fantasy relationship with a corporate producer. The producer substitutes for a lost or desired father figure (trusted provider of material goods) or mother figure (a source of physiological and emotional security).
Other sociologists note that ads often link products, such as autos, to attractive women or men, as if to imply that buying ensures a glamorous, sexually satisfied life-style. Or the ad may simply sell a certain lifestyle, real or imagined. A good example here is that of bottled water. Scientific studies usually show that tap water is cleaner than bottled water, but athletic or health-minded individuals still buy into the phoney health mythology peddled by some bottled water companies.¹
Neo-Marxist theorists (notable followers of Marx) maintain that media ads contain more meaningful information than media news because ads better depict the cultural biases of a particular era. News, they say, tends to obscure social realities.
This obfuscation of reality in the news is said to occur through:
- Selectivity – stories that make the headlines are deemed good for ratings and therefore good for profits
- Modes of reporting – editing and language styles tend to color a story while seeming not to
- Placement of stories – stories deemed less important and less commercially viable appear at the back of newspapers or somewhere in the middle of the evening news
Meanwhile some say that ads not only reveal but also contribute to and reinforce prevailing cultural attitudes.
Postmodern thinkers argue that some ads draw on – or conjure up – a mythic past when times apparently were rosy (e.g. the good old days of ‘Mom’s apple pie’ and well-defined ‘family values’). Warm and secure memories, even if based on a kind of fiction, are apparently recaptured by purchasing the advertised product.
Postmoderns also suggest that a new moral synthesis is created by combining real and imaginary images from the past with contemporary motifs. That is, ads help to define a new moral code. An example here might be found in the name of the product “Quick Quaker Oats,” where the positive connotations associated with the word Quaker (old-style integrity, reliability and intelligence) are combined with those of Quick (fast-paced modern society).
However, advertising rarely enters into areas still considered taboo or deviant by the so-called moral majority. Gay and lesbian couples are seldom portrayed in advertising (although more recently the idea of casual lesbian sex is being hinted at), just as couples of different color were at one time excluded from ads.
An aesthetic view of advertising evaluates ads in terms of their artistic value. For instance, moviegoers pay at the box office to see films such as The Best Ads From Around The World. And arguably some of the best new art today comes from graphic artists under contract by government or commercial bodies.
Jungians and some spiritual thinkers might evaluate ads partly in terms of their archetypal and even synchronistic connection to the psychological, social and spiritual world of the potential buyer.
But amidst all this theorizing we’d do well to remember that business or government, being the driving forces behind the ad, primarily want to sell goods and services or promote some information or idea deemed important.
- The Simple Rules on Product Packaging and Labelling in Nigeria (nlipw.com)
- The 7 Most Mind-Boggling Things About Bottled Water (huffingtonpost.com)
- Researchers uncovered endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) in commercialized bottled water (whatiskangenwater.wordpress.com)
- Photshop Ad (kriswarrington.wordpress.com)
- Best Options for Clean Water on the Go (studio13bymbsworks.com)
- Bottled water found to contain over 24,000 chemicals, including endocrine disruptors (sgtreport.com)
Alfred Adler (1870-1937) was a leading Austrian psychiatrist who graduated from medicine in 1895. He was attracted to Sigmund Freud‘s work when he read the Interpretation of Dreams.
Soon after, Adler was asked to join Freud’s inner circle within the emerging school of psychoanalysis (The Vienna Psychoanalytic Society).
His Studie über Minderwertigkeit von Organen (Study of Organ Inferiority and its Psychical Compensation, 1907), however, was too controversial for the old master. And so came one of the great schisms in the history of psychoanalysis. Adler was the very first to depart from Freud’s inner circle, followed by C. G. Jung.
Adler’s lasting contribution to psychology centers on his belief that humans have an innate “drive for aggression.” For instance, if a developing child has (or imagines) a defect in their bodies they may develop an inferiority complex, an unconscious sense of inadequacy. To compensate for this negative self-attitude, the individual manifests the opposite: an unrealistic superiority complex.
Adler believes we all do this to some degree. The situation becomes neurotic when one disregards the rights of others and causes injury. It becomes psychotic when one loses their authentic relationship with the world and others.
Some argue that the definition of an “authentic relationship” is difficult to define and standardize, especially with the ever growing popularity of social media like Facebook, Twitter, Myspace, YouTube Flickr, Pinterest and SoundCloud.
Another critique is of Adler’s thought has to do with the spiritual aspect of mankind. Adler advances a biological drive for aggression and recognizes social factors contributing to the personality, but he doesn’t talk much about human spirituality, arguably the most important and enduring aspect of the self.
- Adler, Alfred (wordsfromdic.com)
- Sept. 10, 2013 – A Day at a Time (cmmacneil.typepad.com)
- Chance inheritance: The subtle power of birth order (newscientist.com)
- Breaking Bad: Buried (5.10) (dailykos.com)
- community involvement critical to healthy adolescent development (crystalarber.com)
- Action over Words (jjbollox.wordpress.com)
- Reflections: how I met Adler (adlermoment.wordpress.com)
The idea of an abyss (Greek, abyssos, Latin abyssus) or bottomless pit is found in most cultures, cropping up in myth, legend, folklore and the arts.¹
In biblical Judaism the abyss lies deep within the earth, a place where evil spirits of the dead are banished (Job 32:22, Psalm 6:5, 143:7). Whereas in ancient Greece the majority of the dead retire to a gloomy underworld, an abyss of “shades” where they are punished for worldly sins.
The ancient Greeks talked a lot about the underworld but the idea of heaven was not well developed. Only a few ancient Greek heroes pass on to the auspicious Blessed Isles.
However, after the 5th century BCE the belief that the dead reside among the stars appears in Greek thought. But this differs radically from the concept of heaven as articulated by Jesus Christ.
In Hindu lore, a popular version of the Ramayana epic portrays the heroine Sita being consumed by a great opening in the earth. And the Druidic tradition tells of evil foes tumbling down into bottomless caverns. Likewise, the biblical Satan is bound by an angel and cast into a bottomless pit (Rev. 20:3).
The Romanian scholar of myth and religion, Mircea Eliade, says that myths about “binding” evil beings are quite plentiful. It’s as if the evil ones must be bound up by chords or some magical force to prevent them from destroying everything.
In the Beowulf myth, an evil water-troll is slain in her underwater lair by use of a magical sword discovered by the hero, deep under the water’s surface.
More recently, Victorian Fairy imagery depicts watery underworlds inhabited by ghoulish beings, from which fairies are protected by dwelling, often sleepily, within a sort of magical cocoon.
New Testament (NT) accounts of an abyss refer to a hellish region from which a wild beast emerges to temporarily destroy prophets after they have completed their mission. The Abyss in the NT is likewise described as a prison for evil spirits (Luke 8:31; Rev 9:1-2; 11; 11:7-8).
In the modern era, the invention of the bathysphere and the submarine opened the door for pulp fiction and Hollywood “B” movies about underwater horrors.
An underwater abyss is also found in the widely respected science fiction film, The Abyss.
Likewise, Star Wars‘ Luke Skywalker perches on a ledge over an abyss in the evil Emperor’s Death Star. And Star Wars Episode 1: The Phantom Menace is chockablock full of strange subterranean beings.
Regardless of the psychological school or religious group one adhers to, generally speaking it seems that a fear of total destruction coexists with a hope for victory over, and order arising from, the dark chaos of the abyss.
As Rod Serling put it in the close of the 1961 Twilight Zone episode “The Shelter,” in which apparently normal American neighbors go beserk during an atomic bomb scare:
For civilization to survive the human race has to remain civilized.
¹ Actually, the idea of the abyss runs throughout most aspects of modern culture, to include comics and gaming. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abyss
- Into The Abyss: Life As A Post-Grad (elliecostigan68.wordpress.com)
- Abyss- (dearheartless.wordpress.com)
- strange creature from the Abyss (lunaticoutpost.com)
- The Abyss Of Passion (carlstromct.wordpress.com)
- [OPINION] The NSA: ‘The Abyss From Which There Is No Return’ (njtoday.net)
- The Chronicles of Heavenly Artifice – Exalted, the Modern Underworld from Emergence Campaign Weblog (ruscumag.wordpress.com)
Abreaction is a psychoanalytic term referring to a discharge of emotion that is attached to a repressed experience. In contemporary psychoanalysis, the analysand tries to not only feel but also intellectually understand the emotion—that is, the why and how of its repression. According to contemporary abreaction theories, the emotional experience coupled with an intellectual understanding bring about a therapeutic result.
In the early days of psychoanalysis, however, the intellectual component wasn’t deemed important for successful therapeutic progress. One just had to feel, it was thought. In fact, Freud, who introduced the concept in 1893, often tried get his patients to abreact under hypnosis.
Freud’s star pupil Carl Jung showed some interest in abreaction but also in its limitations. Jung believed that abreaction could bring about a positive, cathartic experience. But also he believed that abreaction of personal trauma wasn’t the only way to bring the psyche to health. Also, Jung argued that some patients fantasized or actively made up their early traumatic experiences.
- Look into my eyes (thehindu.com)
- Is Hypnosis Dangerous? Side Effect of Hypnotherapy (healnowtherapyhypnosis.blogspot.com)
- The enduring legacy of Freud – Anna Freud (bbc.co.uk)
- Dream Psychology: Awakening Your Inner Vision (zazenlife.com)
- History of Psychology: Who Were the Neo-Freudians? (psych.answers.com)
- Article: “The enduring legacy of Freud – Anna Freud” (BBC News) (historypsychiatry.com)
- Happy Birthday Carl Jung – Check out the Online Exhibit at the Library of Congress (indianajen.com)
- Love in all Four Dimensions: Mystical, Psychoanalytical, Philosophical, and Revolutionary (dingpolitik.wordpress.com)
- Understanding the Psychoanalysis Method Developed by Sigmund Freud (psych.answers.com)
- Beyond True and False Psychoanalysis [Part 1 of 2] (dingpolitik.wordpress.com)
Compensation is a psychological term that was first introduced by Alfred Adler in Study of Organ Inferiority and Its Physical Compensation (1907).
Adler understood compensation in terms of underlying feelings of inferiority. In order to cope with the pain of feeling inferior, the psyche develops beliefs at the opposite end of the psychological spectrum. That is, it ‘compensates’ by feeling superior to other people. Hence the now familiar idea of the inferiority-superiority complex.
In 1907 Carl Gustav Jung notes the pathogenic complex posses a quantum of libido which grants it a degree of autonomy that is opposed to conscious will. Though this dynamic has a pathological cast, it conveys the essence of what Jung termed compensation; namely, the capacity of the unconscious to influence consciousness.¹
However, Jung wouldn’t name compensation as such until 1914.
In “The Importance of the Unconscious in Psychopathology” (1914), he introduced the idea, saying, “the principal function of the unconscious is to effect a compensation and to produce a balance. All extreme conscious tendencies are softened and toned down through a counter-impulse in the unconscious.”²
We can see that Jung’s view of compensation, as compared to Adler’s, is geared more toward the idea that the psyche strives to achieve balance and integration.
In fact, Jung believed the psyche has a natural tendency toward balance and integration. If a particular attitude becomes extreme, Jung believed that therapy and close attention to dreams could help to amplify repressed or underdeveloped psychological contents.
On several occasions Jung says that his own particular brand of therapy is essential to this process. And he believed that he had successfully analyzed himself in this regard. But, at the same time, Jung didn’t try to sell potential clients on his views. If an ardent churchgoer, for example, was satisfied with what Jung may have taken as a skewed perspective, Jung would let the person be. Apparently Jung only intervened when clients’ old systems and attitudes lead to neurosis (or psychosis) and help was requested.
This latter claim might, however, be a bit exaggerated, in keeping with the tendency of some Jungians to elevate Jung as some kind of new prophet for modern times. There are also accounts where Jung was quite brash and bold, surprising and even shocking his clients. Perhaps they had asked for his help. But whether or not he was, at times, playing the the ‘wise guru’ and on a bit of a power trip remains open to debate.³
³ Although married to Emma Jung, it seems Carl had sex with at least two of his clients, Sabina Spielrein and Toni Wolff, which certainly wouldn’t wash in psychiatry today. See » http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Jung#Marriage