Search Results for Orthodox Church
Formerly part of the Orthodox Church, the Greek Orthodox Church became self-governing in 1833 after the fall of Constantinople to the Turks. The See of Athens is its primacy of honor.
Unlike the Catholic Church, the Greek Orthodox Church does not believe in the dogma of Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary.
Orthodox theologians reacted negatively to the new dogmas proclaimed by Pope Pius IX: the Immaculate Conception of Mary (1854) and papal infallibility (1870). In connection with the dogma of the Assumption of Mary, proclaimed by Pope Pius XII (1950), the objections mainly concerned the presentation of such a tradition in the form of a dogma.¹
To this Zacharias adds:
The Orthodox Church most emphatically does -not- believe in the Immaculate Conception.
This heretical doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church states that the Virgin Mary was born -without sin.- Think about that! How could a human being be born without the effect of original sin? How could she born not subject to bodily death as every human being is, being a product of a fallen world?
The Virgin Mary was not born this way, but she was born subject to the passions and to death just as every other human being. Our Lord Christ Jesus is the only person who has lived who was born without sin besides Adam and Eve, who were created before sin entered the world.
We DO believe however that Mary lived a holy life, not agreeing with the heretical doctrine of the Latin Church does not diminish this fact at all. » See in context
¹ Source » “Orthodox Church Beliefs” http://mb-soft.com/believe/txw/orthobel.htm
- Greek Orthodox leader for Pa., Ohio, W. Va. seated (goerie.com)
- Local members of Greek Orthodox Church cast vote for independence ()
- AXIOS! Greek Orthodox Church honors retiring Metropolitan (palamas.info)
- Middlesex on the Greek Orthodox Church (aleksandreia.wordpress.com)
- Who is the bishop of davao (wiki.answers.com)
Eastern Orthodox Church » Orthodox Churches
Add to this, report errors, suggest edits or voice your opinion by posting a comment
Orthodox Churches (or Orthodox Church) A body of self-governing churches recognizing the primacy of the Patriarch of Constantinople and abiding by the doctrine of seven Ecumenical Councils from Nicaea I (327 CE) to Nicaea II (787 CE). As such it recognizes the Nicene Creed.
As a whole the Orthodox Church includes the patriarchates of Alexandria, Antioch, Constantinople and Jerusalem. It’s mostly found in Russia, the Ukraine, Serbia, Belarus, Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Poland, Greece, Moldova, Czechoslovakia, Albania, Cyprus and throughout the Middle East.
The Orthodox Church emerged within the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire, formally splitting with the Roman Catholic Church in the Great Schism of the 11th century. Like the Roman Catholic Church, the Orthodox Church sees itself as the authentic Church. » Greek Orthodox Church
Add to this, report errors, make suggestions or voice your opinion by posting a comment
Christianity is the religion based on the life, teachings, moral example, crucifixion and resurrection of the New Testament figure, Jesus Christ. Jesus was the son of a young Jewish woman, Mary, who conceived while engaged to her carpenter fiance, Joseph. The Jesus story tells us that Mary didn’t have sexual relations with Joseph but, instead, was visited by the angel Gabriel who told her that she’d become pregnant by the power of the Holy Spirit—a calling which Mary willingly accepted. So technically, Joseph was Jesus’ foster father.
Founded in Jerusalem, the Christian religion emerged from the Jewish scriptural tradition, which Christians today call the Old Testament. Jesus, in fact, is seen by his followers as the long awaited prophet promised in Jewish scriptures.
As with contemporary Christianity, Early Christianity was shaped by the Jesus story. But this isn’t all. There’s also the living grace which believers claim to experience. So rather than their religion being a dry routine based on some distant past event, believers say they can feel the Holy Spirit acting in their lives, here and now.¹
These two elements – the teachings and example of the earthly Christ along with the perceived guidance and indwelling love of the heavenly Christ – forged an unshakable belief in many of Christ’s early followers.
Some early Christians believed that Christ’s promised return – signalling the end of the world – was imminent. In one letter St. Paul chastises believers for not working due to their misguided belief about the end-times occurring within their lifetimes (2 Thessalonians 3:10, Matthew 24:36, Mark 13:32).
The religion spread throughout the Mediterranean’s Gentile (non-Jewish) population for about 20 years after Christ’s death. It was declared an “illegal assembly” under Roman Law. And the tyrant Nero publicly blamed Christians for the great fire in Rome of 64 CE.
Cruel and barbaric persecutions at the hands of the pagan Romans followed but the religion continued to spread. While some Christians denied their belief in Christ when threatened with horrendous torture and death, a good number willingly – some even joyously – went to their deaths at the hands of the pagan Romans.
The graceful and heroic courage of Christians being fed alive to lions in the Colosseum at Rome impressed some of the more sensitive Romans, leading to their conversion to this new monotheistic religion. Conversions didn’t just take place among the poor, as commonly believed. By 96 CE the radical egalitarianism of Christianity became increasingly apparent as members of the Roman Imperial family also converted away from their pagan past. By the end of the 2nd-century, Christianity had spread into Britain.
Why was Christianity so successful?
Some sociologists suggest that the Christian message gave hope of eternal reward to the powerless and oppressed. In other words, it’s a religion for losers. But historians more correctly note that the religion cut across all class lines, fostered warm communal love and complete forgiveness for past wrongs, along with the promise of power over demons and everlasting life in heaven. Theologians add that the spiritual power of the living Christ has always been present among believers in the form of the Holy Spirit, giving life, love and direction to their religious worship.
In 313 CE Constantine issued an edict of toleration in Milan, enabling Christians to worship without fear of persecution. In 381 CE Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of the Roman empire.
Some Christian sects in early Christianity emphasized either Christ’s humanity at the expense of his Divinity, or conversely, his Divinity at the expense of his humanity. The Church took great pains to officially resolve these as “heresies.”
Christianity continued to expand through the Roman empire. When the Western empire fell in 476 CE, the barbarian invaders were converted.
During the so-called Dark Ages, the Papal court fell into disrepute. Several Popes become blatantly corrupt. Murder, intrigue and absurd rationalizations for grave evils abounded. The flame of Christianity, however, was kept alive in the European monasteries. Monks by and large were disgusted with the scandalous and violent practices of the Papal court.
In the East, Christianity continued as ‘Byzantium’ until overrun my Muslim invaders in 1453 CE.
The Orthodox Church had become split by the 11th-century. Apart from subtle theological differences, the Western Church recognized the Pope while the Eastern Church did not.
Several additional heresies were squelched by the Western Church but the 16th-century rise of the Reformers and the Counter-Reformation created a decisive split between Protestants and Roman Catholics.
Protestant Churches, themselves, began to splinter, with many new denominations rising up, usually at the bidding of some charismatic reformer claiming to rekindle the “original truth” of Christianity.
Despite doctrinal differences among various branches of Christianity in the 21st-century, almost all Christians believe in the doctrine of the Trinity. This is the belief that God reveals himself in three ‘persons’ of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. These three distinct persons are said to be equal, eternal and also a unity, sharing the same substance.
Today Christianity is a world-wide religion of over 2.2 billion followers, largely the result of colonization and missionary work among various Christian denominations.
¹ Problems arise when different believers claim opposing ‘truths’ based on the apparent experience of the Holy Spirit. Quite possibly some individuals mistake a kind of vital, perhaps even biochemical, energy for the true love and peace of the Holy Spirit.
- History of purgatory (divinelightblog.wordpress.com)
- Can’t we just work together? (tolivelifetothefull.wordpress.com)
- A Long Oral Tradition: Step four in the development of early Christian faith (mikerivageseul.wordpress.com)
- Changing the Face of Christianity Reports on the State of Christianity Today (prweb.com)
- rants: a pagan or atheist at heart? (christiannoob.wordpress.com)
- Our Righteousness in Christ (missiontopapua.wordpress.com)
- This is Good News – A Devotion (lthomason.wordpress.com)
- What Happened to the Old-Fashion Religion? (5ptsalt.com)
- Christianity Is Not a Religion!!!! (encounterss.wordpress.com)
- The Uniqueness of Christianity: 12 Objections Answered (insightscoop.typepad.com)
The term “Catholic” (Greek: katholikos = universal) was initially applied to the Christian Church by St. Ignatius of Antioch (c. 100 CE) in a letter to the Church at Smyrna:
Wheresoever the bishop shall appear, there let the people be, even as where Jesus is, there is the Catholic Church.
The term became widely used to denote both clergy and lay members of the Christian Church. In the 4th-century CE St. Pacianus writes
Christian is my name; Catholic is my surname.
Today it refers to any member of the Roman Catholic Church. However, the following shows some of the complications around this term.
The Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglicans, Lutherans, and some Methodists believe that their churches are “Catholic” in the sense that they are in continuity with the original universal church founded by the Apostles. However, each church defines the scope of the “Catholic Church” differently. For instance, the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox churches each maintain that their own denomination is identical with the original universal church, from which all other denominations broke away.¹
Some materialistic psychologists and sociologists view this in terms of a kind of individual and cultural relativity. In other words, all the churches are both right and wrong in that their supremacist claims give adherents a sense of personal meaning and social belonging (each person and group according to their unique profiles). But all the churches are essentially wrong because God and the afterlife don’t exist. And even if God did exist, such a being wouldn’t favor one path over others.
Others believe that God surely does exist, and God’s truth doesn’t stoop to psychological or postmodern style theories. So one Church is right and all the others are wrong.
A third way of looking at the problem sees some spiritual truth in each Church but also cultural biases. These spiritual truths are not necessarily the same, conceptually or experientially. For instance, a Catholic entering an Orthodox church might intellectually balk at theological differences over, say, the filioque.² They may also feel a spiritual presence, but the numinosity might not be of the same quality as experienced within the Catholic Church (and vice versa, with the Orthodox believer entering into a Catholic church). In this way of understanding, one path is right for one type of person, while another path is right for another type of person. Accordingly, one path to salvation is not necessarily better than another. Just as a frog likes a pond, a bird likes the air.
And yet a fourth way of seeing the issue is to say that one path is, in fact, closer to ultimate truth than the others but still contains cultural bias and is, therefore, imperfect.
This last way seems to be the way of the Catholic Church in the 21st century. Catholics are taught that other religions may contain elements of truth, but the Catholic Church is the best expression of God’s mysterious being, creation and plan of salvation—even if the Catholic Church’s articulation of belief remains imperfect by virtue of our human limitations.
Related Posts » Catholicism
- Christians in Syria (turcopolier.typepad.com)
- Me Vs The Catholic Church – Take 1 (pinkandfreetobeme.wordpress.com)
- St Rita Catholic Church bomb blast: A message from Pres. Jonathan (faithonavba.wordpress.com)
- Roman Catholic Church Finances in the United States (mumbailaity.wordpress.com)
- What a Thing to Perhaps Be Blessed to See (jimjohnmarks.wordpress.com)
- Bart Sez 50 Years of “Love” and “Harmony” Between Catholics and Orthodox… He was the ONLY Orthodox Leader to Show Up for Vatican Dixie Fry (02varvara.wordpress.com)
- B-r-e-a-k-i-n-g News : Catholic Church in Kaduna Bombed (vanguardngr.com)
- The Universal Church as Parish Community (frted.wordpress.com)
- 50 years after Vatican II began (coffeeringstheology.wordpress.com)
- What If Churches Paid Taxes Like Everyone Else? (theageofblasphemy.wordpress.com)
The first Great Schism was the separation of the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches. Antagonisms over various issues had been brewing since the 9th century but the break formally took place in 1054.
Relations between East and West had long been embittered by political and ecclesiastical differences and theological disputes. Prominent among these were the issues of “filioque“, whether leavened or unleavened bread should be used in the Eucharist, the Pope’s claim to universal jurisdiction, and the place of Constantinople in relation to the Pentarchy.¹
The antimony between East and West was brought to a head in 1053 by an attack on the Pope by Michael Cerularius, the patriarch of Constantinople. This resulted in the excommunication of Cerularius and his Eastern followers by Western papal authorities.
- “Confronting the Claim of Eastern Orthodoxy to be…” (insightscoop.typepad.com)
- Clearing Confusion on Who Speaks for the Church | Suffering With Joy (intostillness.wordpress.com)
- Survey of Church History: From the Apostles to Jordan (compasschurchamman.wordpress.com)
- The Gates of Hell Shall Not Prevail Against It (everytongueproclaim.wordpress.com)
The Great Mother is an umbrella concept referring to the idea of “The Goddess” and different major goddesses around the world, usually but not necessarily related to vegetation, and by implication, fertility.
The celebrated archeologist Marija Gimbutas (1921-1994) argued that behind all representations of prehistoric goddesses lies a single, Great Goddess.
Gimbutas identified diverse Paleolithic and Neolithic female representations that she believed depicted a single universal Great Goddess. She also recognized that these complex representations stood for a range of female deities (e.g. snake goddess, bee goddess, bird goddess, mountain goddess, Mistress of the Animals) that were not necessarily ubiquitous throughout Europe.¹
In a tape entitled “The Age of the Great Goddess,” Gimbutas discusses the various manifestations of the Goddess which occur, and stresses the ultimate unity behind them all of the Earth as feminine.¹
Gimbutas also believed that excavations from Neolithics sites in Europe and Lithuania suggest a society were women were dominant, in both the worldly and spiritual sense. Her views, although still debated among scholars, gave great impetus to aspects of the feminist movement, mostly among woman scholars, academics and intellectuals who shared her point of view.
The term was also used in the ancient world to refer to nurturing, life-affirming female deities worshipped in public places.
While in prison awaiting his execution, Boethius (circa 480-525) wrote Consolation of Philosophy, in which he’s visited by a female apparition called Philosophy. Boethius’ “eternal feminine” comforter and guide conforms to Jung’s idea of the anima, as does James Lovelock‘s choice of the name Gaia (Greek Mother Goddess) to depict his view that the earth behaves as if it were a self-contained living organism.
In the contemporary and ancient sense, the Great Mother has a terrible side, wreaking vengeance and punishment on the sinful. In India, the bloodthirsty goddesses Kali and the bellicose Durga are regarded by many as manifestations of the Great Mother.
The Virgin Mary is often wrongly placed in this category, described by non-Catholics as a goddess. But representations of Kali and Mary, for instance, reveal clear differences. Kali, mouth dripping with blood, wears a garland of human heads which she has decapitated, whereas Mary stands serenely on top of creation (and the serpent), disseminating God’s graces from her hands. And there are still regular animal sacrifices at the Kali temple in Kolkata (where the distasteful odor of animal blood certainly did not elevate this author’s mind and soul to high places).
Other differences between Mary and non-Christian goddesses are more subtle. Mary and the goddess Isis, for instance, are both represented suckling their sons, and the Chinese bodhisattva, Kwan-Yin, also holds an infant. But, despite their representational similarities, the religious beliefs and metaphysical implications behind these female deities differ significantly.
In the simplest terms, Mary is a venerated saint who intercedes for God, while The Goddess is the source of all creation—that is, God or a manifestation of God.
¹ The first citation is a paraphrase of a passage at Wikipedia that could have been written more clearly. The second, a direct quote: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marija_Gimbutas
- Goddess vs. goddess (earthpages.wordpress.com)
- Earliest image of Mother Goddess found (thehindu.com)
- Mother Worship -Tantra Goddess Worship (soundhealingifc.com)
- Mary, the virginal mother of God, and feminist theology (insightscoop.typepad.com)
- The Goddess of the Western World… Where is she? (divinaturism.com)
- Durga Devotional Mantra (prophet666.com)
- Angelic Words to connect with Mother Earth | Angelic Words from RenamixTech (angelicwords.wordpress.com)
In Christian theology, The Holy Spirit is one of the three “persons” constituting the Holy Trinity of The Father, The Son and the Holy Spirit.
Each person is said to be eternal, equal, distinct and yet of the same substance. The term Holy Ghost is an old English version of the Latin Spiritus.
In the New Testament Jesus promises his disciples that the Paraclete or Spirit of Truth will return. However, the worldly and evil people of this world cannot and will not see it unless they repent (John 14:16-17).
Around 360 CE the early Christian Church opposed as heretical the idea of the pneumatomachi–-the teaching that Jesus Christ but not the Spirit is Divine.
In 381 the Council of Constantinople repudiated these heretics by declaring the dogma of the Holy Spirit. This was further elaborated in 589 by the Council of Toledo’s dogma of double procession, or the filioque, which stipulates that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son.
This teaching became popular as the Nicene Creed spread throughout the empire of the Franks from the 9th-century onward. But due to an apparent temporal paradox (How can the Holy Spirit proceed from the Father and the Son if the Holy Trinity is co-eternal?), the filioque has been controversial and, indeed, openly attacked by the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Many Christians tend to describe the Holy Spirit as an indwelling of the divine. That is, God is wholly-other but also immanent as a numinous experience. On the indwelling of the Holy Spirit, Karl Gross cites Evelyn Underhill:
As they know themselves to dwell in the world of time and yet to be capable of transcending it, so the Ultimate Reality, they think, inhabits yet inconceivably exceeds all that they know to be — as the soul of the musician controls and exceeds not merely each note of the flowing melody, but also the whole of the symphony in which these cadences must play their part. » Source
However, a philosophical problem arises with the idea of indwelling. It’s obvious that many religious groups (and individuals) claim to be guided by the Holy Spirit while promoting drastically different agendas. Perhaps a partial solution to this problem could be to say that some of these groups and individuals are closer to enacting God’s will than others.
- Praying for Yourself and Those Whom You Love to Experience the Liberating Power of the Holy Spirit (trinitytuscaloosa.wordpress.com)
- When someone is speaking ‘in tongues’ in the Holy Spirit does this mean that you are speaking God’s language which is ancient Hebrew (wiki.answers.com)
- The Dove and The Holy Spirit (tnlighthouse.wordpress.com)
- walking in the truth…walking in love (evanlaar1922.wordpress.com)
Bob Marley (Robert Nesta, 1945-81) was a Jamaican Rastafarian singer, guitarist and reggae composer born near Kingston.
In the 1970′s he frontmanned “Bob Marley and the Wailers” and became a charismatic figure and international symbol for black emancipation and, in a general sense, personal liberation and peaceful coexistence.
His social commentary and spirituality was backed by first rate melodies, lyrics and musical arrangements in songs like Redemption Song:
How long shall they kill our prophets, while we stand aside and look? Some say it’s just a part of it, we’ve got to fulfill the Book.
And Pimper’s Paradise:
She’ll be laughing when there ain’t no joke. A pimper’s paradise, that’s all she was now. A pimper’s paradise, that’s all she was.
As well as Coming In From The Cold:
Would you let the system make you kill your brotherman?
No, Dread, no!
Would you make the system make you kill your brotherman?
No, Dread, no!…
Well, the biggest man you ever did see was – was just a baby.
Along with Time Will Tell:
Think you’re in heaven but you’re living in hell
Time alone, oh! time will tell
Think you’re in heaven but you’re living in hell
Marley was baptized in 1980 by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church in Jamaica over a year before he died of cancer in 1981.
Search Think Free » Rastafarianism
- Marley clan loses copyright fight (bbc.co.uk)
- Rumor: Bob Marley’s Legend comes to Rock Band Sept. 21 (joystiq.com)
- Bob Marley family loses case over hit records (reuters.com)
- Bob Marley ‘greatest hits’ album coming to Rock Band (destructoid.com)
- Bob Marley’s Daughter Pleads Guilty! (perezhilton.com)
- Is Bob Marley’s ‘Legend’ Heading To ‘Rock Band’? (multiplayerblog.mtv.com)
- Bob Marley Family Loses Case Over Hit Records (nytimes.com)
- 174 reviews of Bob Marley and the Wailers (rateitall.com)
- Bob Marley’s Work Declared ‘Work For Hire,’ Family Can’t Get Rights Back (techdirt.com)
- Bob Marley’s daughter pleads guilty to possessing marijuana plants (philly.com)
Add more, report errors or voice your opinion by posting a comment
The Nicene Creed is an early and lasting expression of Christian faith that was formulated for the dual purpose of (a) affirming shared beliefs within the Christian Church and (b) countering various “heretical” sects that Church leaders believed could potentially lead the faithful astray.
Since its formulation at the Council of Nicaea in 325 (CE), the Creed has been reworked to its current day form.
It is recited during the Eucharistic celebration in Catholic, Orthodox and many Protestant Churches:
We believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, of all that is, seen and unseen. We believe in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the only Son of God, eternally begotten of the Father, God from God, Light from Light, true God from true God, begotten, not made, of one Being with the Father. Through him all things were made. For us and for our salvation he came down from heaven: by the power of the Holy Spirit he became incarnate from the Virgin Mary, and was made man. For our sake he was crucified under Pontius Pilate; he suffered death and was buried. On the third day he rose again in accordance with the Scriptures; he ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father. He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead, and his kingdom will have no end. We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son. With the Father and the Son he is worshiped and glorified. He has spoken through the Prophets. We believe in one holy catholic and apostolic Church. We acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins. We look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen.
As with any public declaration, be it a secular or religious one, one has to wonder how many people recite the words without really believing in everything they say. This is a problem that has intrigued leading scholars of religion and myth, and the question may be applied to any kind of ancient or contemporary religious, mythological, political or ideological data.
- This Day in Ancient History: ante diem xiii kalendas quinctilias (rogueclassicism.com)
- Jesuit Priest Criticizes Church Demands For Lock Step Agreement (camelswithhammers.com)
- A Pastoral Ecclesiological Vision (palamas.info)
- Book Review – Faith, Interrupted – A Spiritual Journey – By Eric Lax (nytimes.com)
- So Astonishing That Even Christians Don’t Like Accepting It: (brothersjuddblog.com)
- Bishop Says New Mass Likely in Late 2011 (beliefnet.com)
- disputed sovereignty (text-patterns.thenewatlantis.com)
Search Think Free » Apostles’ Creed, Holy Spirit, Orthodox Churches
Add more, report errors or voice your opinion by posting a comment