Search Results for Object
In Freudian theory the object is that which a subject directs energy toward in an attempt to gratify instinctual desires.
Just how a person relates to the object varies according to their psychological maturity.
In Freudian discourse the object usually refers to another person, aspects of a person, or a full or partial symbolic representation of a person.
When an object refers to another complete person replete with human rights and dignity, the object is a whole object.
Search Think Free » Cathexis, Fixation, Projection, Repression, Splitting, Stages of Psychosexual Development
Charles Rycroft, A Critical Dictionary of Psychoanalysis, Harmondsworth: Penguin 1977, p. 100.
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Animism is the belief that natural objects like rocks, rivers, mountains and trees, as well as animals and people have a spiritual, animating principle.
The pioneering anthropologist Sir E. B. Tylor (1832 -1917) developed a theory of animism to try to explain the origins of religion. Tylor believed that so-called primitive man developed a belief in spirits existing in nature from the actual experience of sleep, dreams and breathing. Like many researchers who think they know better than the people they are researching, it was probably too much of a stretch for him to take the idea on its own terms.
Today, it’s not entirely clear if animism should be defined as a religion, per se, or simply as a widely held belief. One of the complications that comes out of the belief in animism is the view that matter and spirit are the same. This differs from the view that matter and energy are equivalent. But not many people are able to appreciate the subtlety of this distinction. Many New Age and subatomic physics enthusiasts say that matter and energy are the same, and therefore assume that matter, energy and spirit are the same.
This view is at odds with religious perspectives that claim spirit pervades matter/energy but is qualitatively different from it. But again, if someone is merely looking at the problem intellectually, or with limited experience, they’ll probably think it’s all the same.
- Where did I come from? – Dr Wayne W. Dyer (thewillowspirit.wordpress.com)
- E.B. Tylor (socialthought309.wordpress.com)
- Overview and Literature Review (sulainab.wordpress.com)
- Native Spirituality (secondary3historyblog.wordpress.com)
- the cultivation management and magical use of nwyfre (wyldwyverne.com)
- Discovery (mythoughtmachineblog.wordpress.com)
- Animal Guides (phaedrasplace.wordpress.com)
- Assume that you do NOT know (themanaoblog.wordpress.com)
- Medicine Woman (thetarotman.wordpress.com)
- Dear Theos, Please learn to handle survey data (recoveringagnostic.wordpress.com)
Anathema is a term with Koiné Greek roots. Koiné Greek is an ancient form of Greek that was prevalent in the ancient world, having spread along with the conquests of Alexander the Great (4th century BCE). Koiné Greek is also the language of the New Testament and early Church Fathers.
The meaning of anathema is slightly ambiguous in some contexts, mainly because the word evolved over the centuries, leaving room for interpretation by experts. Anathema can mean something offered up to the gods or, alternately, to God. In the case of the gods, the offering can be be unholy. So one meaning of anathema, the most commonly understood today, is an offering “dedicated to evil.”
A good example of a currently debated instance of the word anathema is found in 1 Corinthians 16:22, where St. Paul says “If any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be Anathema Maranatha.”
The word “anathema” in 1 Corinthians 16:22 might suggest that they who love not the Lord are objects of loathing and execration to all holy beings; they are unrepentant of a crime that merits the severest condemnation; they are exposed to the sentence of “everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord” for they do not embrace saving beliefs, as was the sentence of all mankind before the atonement, justification and sanctification of the blood of Christ that allowed for the redemption of sins. Alternatively, the Apostle Paul could be suggesting that those who do not love the Lord should be offered up to God.¹
In Catholicism it came to mean a severe denunciation of some theological idea or practice contrary to orthodox teaching, and usually the complete separation of the culpable person or persons from the saving power of the Church. Essentially, this meant that guilty parties were condemned to eternal hellfire with Satan and his demons lest he or she repent and display obedience to the Church.
The first instance of anathema as applied to “heretics” is found in 306 CE at the Council of Elvira, where it soon became the preferred terminology for cutting religious deviants off from the alleged saving power of the Church. In short, anathema meant total excommunication. With its newfound bent for systematizing, the 5th century Church made a distinction between anathema and “minor” excommunication.
In 1983 the Code of Canon Law replaced the now archaic word anathema with excommunication.
Anathema is also the name of a British rock band from Liverpool, originally called Pagan Angel.
- THE POWER OF ANATHEMA Written by Vladimir Moss (mediolanum.me)
- An Eleventh Hour Conversion: A Story of Delayed Harvest (ilyston.wordpress.com)
- THE DOGMA OF PAPAL INFALLIBILITY by Randolph Harrison McKim (ilyston.wordpress.com)
- In harmony with this spirit the Gnosis… (carljungdepthpsychology.blogspot.com)
- When Classics students talk with Theology students (fishedup.wordpress.com)
- New Photos of CARCASS, IMMOLATION, ANATHEMA, ALCEST Posted (metalinjection.net)
Wikipedia gives a wonderful summary of Alchemy, worthy of being repeated here:
Alchemy is an influential philosophical tradition whose practitioners have, from antiquity, claimed it to be the precursor to profound powers. The defining objectives of alchemy are varied, but historically have typically included one or more of the following goals: the creation of the fabled philosopher’s stone; the ability to transform base metals into the noble metals (gold or silver); and development of an elixir of life, which would confer youth and longevity. Alchemy is recognized as a protoscience that contributed to the development of modern chemistry and medicine. Alchemists developed a framework of theory, terminology, experimental process and basic laboratory techniques that are still recognizable today. But alchemy differs significantly from modern science in its inclusion of Hermetic principles and practices related to mythology, magic, religion, and spirituality.¹
With this brief summary under our belt, let’s highlight some of the main facets of alchemy—at least, those which might be most helpful for spiritual seekers.
In everyday usage, the word alchemy describes a psychological dynamic within and, according to C. G. Jung, among real people. Its etymology points to the actual practice of alchemy, derived via Arabic from the Greek chemeia.
Historically, alchemy involved the mixing of heated chemicals and mineral substances with a view toward artificially transforming base metals into gold. The ancient Greeks in Alexandria around 300 BCE practiced the art, as did the Arabs and Chinese. During the Middle Ages, many shams posing as alchemists arose in England. There was great interest, especially among the nobility, because these shams said they could make gold out of base metals.
Few realize that Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) wrote on alchemy, and his writings were unpublished in his lifetime. The theologian St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) also wrote on alchemy. And in the sixteenth-century the Swiss physician Paracelsus wrote extensively on alchemy. Moreover, the poet John Donne claimed that “some can finde out Alchimy” by reading the Bible. Astrologers, too, were keen on alchemy. In medieval Europe 12 distinct alchemical stages were associated with the 12 astrological houses of the zodiac.
The depth psychiatrist C. G. Jung believed that alchemists not only transformed substances but also practiced a psycho-spiritual technique. Jung claimed that, because the alchemists’ were closely connected to their work, the transmutation of substances paralleled their own psycho-spiritual development. Along these lines, raw sulfur (prima materia) was transformed into gold (the philosopher’s stone) through various boiling and chemical treatments. So, Jung’s thinking goes, baser aspects of the psyche were likewise transmuted to a higher awareness, leading to a more comprehensive outlook. This transformation involved stages, culminating in a ‘mystical union’ of the male anima and female animus archetypes within the self, which Jung believes are universal.²
Discounting the historical frauds who faked the creation of gold to try to scam aristocrats, Jungians tend to see alchemy as a personal quest for wholeness and immortality. This quest usually entails a sequence of a psychological deaths and rebirths. For Jung these deaths and rebirths are not just symbolic. Instead, good and bad psychological states accompy each stage of the process. And we apparently feel them, making them emotionally real.
Some students of mythology tend to see the theme of dismemberment and restoration (best exemplified by the Egyptian Osiris) as a mythic parallel to the alchemical process. The Romanian religion scholar Mircea Eliade maintains that the alchemists quickened the natural pace of geological change. And without really explaining too much or saying why he says so, Eliade says the alchemists were altering time. Eliade also wrote novels. So perhaps his literary side was emerging here. But that doesn’t really help us to pin down what he was alluding to. Just more mystery.
Having said that, it seems Eliade is not referring to the subjective experience of time but rather to cheating the laws of nature. Transforming raw elements into refined forms (such as carbon to diamond) normally demands precise geological conditions and a definite duration. By quickening the process, Eliade says the alchemists overcame a natural process and thus mastered time, itself.³
Assuming it’s not all quackery, the alchemical process might accelerate the geological rate of change. But Jungian Marie-Louise Von-Franz claims that the alchemical stages follow their own temporal logic, representing general phases in the process of psychological transformation. Although usually painful, Von-Franz says the alchemical stages cannot be quickened. The mythic and yet subtly visceral ‘boilings’ and ‘dismemberments’ of the psyche undergoing these changes must be patiently endured, with the ultimate hope that maturity and wisdom – what the alchemists call the elixir of life – will eventually rise from the ‘fire’ of suffering.
Perhaps most interesting in all this, however, is Jung’s assertion that the metaphor of alchemy can be extended to the dynamic of human relationship. That is, relationships are like chemical interactions. Accordingly, Jung wrote a piece called “Marriage as a Psychological Relationship” (1925). And he dabbled with the parapsychological idea that mystical relationships could occur at a distance, an idea far more discussed today than in Jung’s time.
² This view has been critiqued, notably by Naomi R. Goldenberg. See Changing of the Gods: Feminism and the End of Traditional Religions.
³ Eliade’s thinking on alchemy and time is confusing or maybe just underdeveloped or possibly understated. A similar argument about time could be made in the context of buying a fast food hamburger instead of raising and slaughtering cows, and then cooking the meat for oneself. Is the nature of time really altered by buying a hamburger? It’s hard to know if Eliade is just playing intellectual word games or if he actually believed he was hinting at something deeper, something too profound for the masses to get at that time.
- All is One (dragonintuitive.com)
- Gold Standard (dragonintuitive.com)
- What is Alchemy? (postmodernsocrates.wordpress.com)
- a history of alchemy (3quarksdaily.com)
- Creating Copper and Gold with Cold Fusion: Modern Day Alchemy (buildtheenterprise.org)
- Cu piatra filozofală (semanticu.wordpress.com)
- The Alchemist (freesiya.wordpress.com)
- Marie Louise Von Franz excerpt from “Alchemy.” (carljungdepthpsychology.blogspot.com)
- [Complete] Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood (鋼の錬金術師) [BD]  Dual Audio (afterwatchanime.wordpress.com)
Derived from the Hindu (Sanskrit) and Buddhist (Pali) understanding of akasha (= ether, subtle space, the forms of space), the Akashic Records is a term used by Theosophy and Anthroposophy to denote a cosmic memory bank of all that ever was, said to exist on a non-physical astral plane.
The term is often used by believers, some of whom may have certain experiences that lead them to believe that they have access to the highest available knowledge. Some also believe that they are continually updated, as if the universe is a kind of supercomputer that automatically downloads updates to those capable of receiving them. In fact, not a few alleged psychics, intuitives and New Age enthusiasts claim to be able to tune in and ‘read’ from the Akashic records.
Edgar Cayce apparently was gifted in a similar way, merely holding books to his stomach to automatically absorb their information. And Rudolf Steiner believed that he accessed the Akashic Records to learn about the legendary city of Atlantis.
Recently, the term Remote Viewing (RV) describes the supposed interior seeing of objects at a distance—that is, beyond the normal senses. Some RVers describe this in terms of accessing a kind of ‘holographic memory bank.’
Like the Akashic Records, this holographic database is said to reveal the past, present and future probabilities. The term probabilities is used by psi researchers like Dale Graff and Russell Targ to underscore their assertion that future events cannot be remote viewed with 100% accuracy.
Some see the holographic mind (or holographic mind levels) as a metaphor or theoretical construct, while others present the idea as fact. And whenever someone presents theory as fact, we really leave the field of science and enter into religion.
- Angelic Guides – The Akashic Records (spiritualconnectedness.wordpress.com)
- What are The Akashic Records and How to Access them? Amazing New Information from Teal Scott (ascendingstarseed.wordpress.com)
- Akashic Records- Work in progress (visionarymusings.wordpress.com)
- Akashic Records (lifechangers13.wordpress.com)
- How can the Akashic Records help you in your business? (thegoddessconnectionblog.com)
- Techniques to Learn Remote Viewing (weird.answers.com)
- “I prayed ….. “ (hrexach.wordpress.com)
- The Knowledgebase (worldoftheroyalqueen.wordpress.com)
- Profundities from the Akashic Records with Aingeal Rose & AHONU-8/18/13 (metaphysicalsciences2012.wordpress.com)
- How to Access the Akashic Records (wingingwithwhitehawk.wordpress.com)
In literary circles the Greek term agapē (Latin: caritas) refers to the ideal of universal love, especially charitable Christian love among brothers and sisters of the one human family.
As C. S. Lewis suggests in his book, The Four Loves (1960), this type of love is distinct from matrimonial, emotional, passionate-erotic and friendly love.
For many Christians, agape also refers to the institution of the Eucharist, introduced by Jesus Christ. The Eucharist is often connected by Christians with the Jewish Passover meal, an event signifying, among other things, fellowship.
Christians also stress that the Eucharistic meal is not just a celebration of fellowship. For believers in the Eucharist, agape is a “love feast” involving a genuine participation in the life, death and resurrection of Christ. The rite is said to pierce through space and time and be sanctified from heaven.
Believers also say the Eucharist is not a mere symbol nor memorial; rather, the host is essentially if not visibly transformed into the body and blood of Christ.
The roots of the Eucharist are traceable to ancient Greece and Rome, where it was believed that deceased ancestors partook of food and drink offered at funeral feasts. Somewhat like the Eucharist, this was not just a memorial feast but an active celebration of the living and the dead.
The Wikipedia entry on agape says that the earliest use of the term agape didn’t bear any particular religious connotation.
Although the word does not have specific religious connotation, the word has been used by a variety of contemporary and ancient sources, including biblical authors and Christian authors. Greek philosophers at the time of Plato and other ancient authors have used forms of the word to denote love of a spouse or family, or affection for a particular activity, in contrast to philia (an affection that could denote friendship, brotherhood or generally non-sexual affection) and eros, an affection of a sexual nature.¹
¹ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agape. This Wikepedia entry may seem less “biased” and more “objective” than a Christian theological view. But it’s arguably biased in its own way.
- 1John3end:- God is Love called Agape and any one who does not display this Devine Love is of Satan as the Jews …. (disclose.tv)
- 1John3v11-24:- Agape Devine Love is the Hallmark of our Supernatural Father. In the natural father Adam, we are born (disclose.tv)
- Agapao / agape (kairoswithjesussite.wordpress.com)
- 1John3v1-9:- Agape love is Devine between the twice-born people of spirit with One Father. Natura people in Adam … (disclose.tv)
- Agape (graniathreads.wordpress.com)
- Agape Love: A Biblical Overview (christianity.answers.com)
- Martin Luther King and agape (robertwestblog.wordpress.com)
- A Eucharistic Abundance of the Fruits of the Earth (frted.wordpress.com)
The main objective of commercial advertising is to sell goods and services, but achieving this goal is anything but simple.
Social theorists directly or indirectly influenced by Karl Marx usually say that advertising creates a “false” or “illusory” relationship between the consumer and the producer.
Freudian-based sociological analyses suggest that when buying, the consumer enters into a fantasy relationship with a corporate producer. The producer substitutes for a lost or desired father figure (trusted provider of material goods) or mother figure (a source of physiological and emotional security).
Other sociologists note that ads often link products, such as autos, to attractive women or men, as if to imply that buying ensures a glamorous, sexually satisfied life-style. Or the ad may simply sell a certain lifestyle, real or imagined. A good example here is that of bottled water. Scientific studies usually show that tap water is cleaner than bottled water, but athletic or health-minded individuals still buy into the phoney health mythology peddled by some bottled water companies.¹
Neo-Marxist theorists (notable followers of Marx) maintain that media ads contain more meaningful information than media news because ads better depict the cultural biases of a particular era. News, they say, tends to obscure social realities.
This obfuscation of reality in the news is said to occur through:
- Selectivity – stories that make the headlines are deemed good for ratings and therefore good for profits
- Modes of reporting – editing and language styles tend to color a story while seeming not to
- Placement of stories – stories deemed less important and less commercially viable appear at the back of newspapers or somewhere in the middle of the evening news
Meanwhile some say that ads not only reveal but also contribute to and reinforce prevailing cultural attitudes.
Postmodern thinkers argue that some ads draw on – or conjure up – a mythic past when times apparently were rosy (e.g. the good old days of ‘Mom’s apple pie’ and well-defined ‘family values’). Warm and secure memories, even if based on a kind of fiction, are apparently recaptured by purchasing the advertised product.
Postmoderns also suggest that a new moral synthesis is created by combining real and imaginary images from the past with contemporary motifs. That is, ads help to define a new moral code. An example here might be found in the name of the product “Quick Quaker Oats,” where the positive connotations associated with the word Quaker (old-style integrity, reliability and intelligence) are combined with those of Quick (fast-paced modern society).
However, advertising rarely enters into areas still considered taboo or deviant by the so-called moral majority. Gay and lesbian couples are seldom portrayed in advertising (although more recently the idea of casual lesbian sex is being hinted at), just as couples of different color were at one time excluded from ads.
An aesthetic view of advertising evaluates ads in terms of their artistic value. For instance, moviegoers pay at the box office to see films such as The Best Ads From Around The World. And arguably some of the best new art today comes from graphic artists under contract by government or commercial bodies.
Jungians and some spiritual thinkers might evaluate ads partly in terms of their archetypal and even synchronistic connection to the psychological, social and spiritual world of the potential buyer.
But amidst all this theorizing we’d do well to remember that business or government, being the driving forces behind the ad, primarily want to sell goods and services or promote some information or idea deemed important.
- The Simple Rules on Product Packaging and Labelling in Nigeria (nlipw.com)
- The 7 Most Mind-Boggling Things About Bottled Water (huffingtonpost.com)
- Researchers uncovered endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) in commercialized bottled water (whatiskangenwater.wordpress.com)
- Photshop Ad (kriswarrington.wordpress.com)
- Best Options for Clean Water on the Go (studio13bymbsworks.com)
- Bottled water found to contain over 24,000 chemicals, including endocrine disruptors (sgtreport.com)
Martin Buber (1878-1965) was a Viennese-born Israeli-Jewish theologian, best known for his 1922 classic, Ich und Du (I and Thou).
Buber has been described as a modern representative of a heterodox form of Jewish mysticism called Hasidism. His work is often mentioned in university philosophy and religion courses, mostly for his description of relating to others and to God in terms of an “I – Thou” (Ich‑Du) relationship. This, for Buber, is the only authentic way to relate.
Ich‑Du (“I‑Thou” or “I‑You”) is a relationship that stresses the mutual, holistic existence of two beings. It is a concrete encounter, because these beings meet one another in their authentic existence, without any qualification or objectification of one another. Even imagination and ideas do not play a role in this relation.†
Buber contrasts the “I – Thou” relationship to an “I – It” (Ich-Es) relationship. “I – It” relationships involve the intellect, concepts, projections, etc of another person instead of their authentic source.
The Ich-Es (“I‑It”) relationship is nearly the opposite of Ich‑Du. Whereas in Ich‑Du the two beings encounter one another, in an Ich‑Es relationship the beings do not actually meet. Instead, the “I” confronts and qualifies an idea, or conceptualization, of the being in its presence and treats that being as an object. All such objects are considered merely mental representations, created and sustained by the individual mind.†
Buber believes that “I – Thou” relationships are quite rare. In reality most of us oscillate between seeing others in “I – Thou” and “I – it” terms.
When applying the “I – Thou” model to the way we relate to God, this stance may be contrasted to religious systems that advocate the ego becoming lost, engulfed or absorbed in God. Buber never eradicates the individual. It’s always about relationship, either respectful, loving and reverent (authentic) or cold, distant and opportunistic (inauthentic).
Unlike some so-called intellectuals who don’t practice what they preach, Buber resigned from his teaching post in Frankfurt when Adolf Hitler came to power. He left Germany in 1938 to settle in Jerusalem, where he continued to try to put his philosophical ideals into practice.
† For these quotes and their relation to other philosophers like Immanuel Kant, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Buber
- Martin Buber (year13philosophers.wordpress.com)
- Absence of mirrors (femioyebode.wordpress.com)
- Martin Buber and Martin Heidegger in Dialogue (disquietreservations.blogspot.com)
- I and thou (uucwilibrary.com)
- Ways to encounter God: 6-13-13 (billtammeus.typepad.com)
- Realms of Experience Beyond the Natural (maverickphilosopher.typepad.com)
According to Buddhist legend, the Bodhi Tree the tree under which the seated Buddha-to-be resolved to find Truth.
Apparently the future Buddha was first pursued by demons and then received what he believed were heavenly visions.
Rejecting both as temporary and unreal, he attained Nirvana, which for him and his followers is the ultimate, true and unchanging reality.
The term Bodhi Tree also refers to a number of trees that Buddists believe are descendents from the original Bodhi Tree. Wikipedia explains:
The Bodhi tree at the Mahabodhi Temple is called the Sri Maha Bodhi. According to Buddhist texts the Buddha, after his Enlightenment, spent a whole week in front of the tree, standing with unblinking eyes, gazing at it with gratitude.¹
Buddhists preach about non-detachment and anatman (no-self) and yet, like adherents of most other religions, tend to venerate a whole series of ritualistic objects, from this kind of tree to well-kept rock gardens. In fact, one could argue that some Buddhist monasteries – not unlike some Christian monasteries – appear more like well-funded middle class havens instead of a place where any kind of real letting go of worldly things occurs.
That would be fine if admitted as such. But the sanctimonious preaching about renunciation that often comes from these places sometimes seems facile and, perhaps, a touch hypocritical.
Related Posts » Buddhism
- Why Bodhi Tree? (vijayaraman.com)
- March 18, 2013 Critical Commentary: THE HOLY BODHI LEAF AT MAHABODHI TEMPLE (worldreligionnews.wordpress.com)
- Under the Bodhi Tree (lifeisavacation.wordpress.com)
- Roots (cloakedmonk.com)
- Buddha Groove Adds New and Artistic Buddha Statues (prweb.com)
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