Gordon D. Newby, however, suggests that this definition is simplistic. The jihad, he says, can be divided into two types—the lesser and the greater jihad.
While the lesser jihad may involve armed conflict against evil†, it doesn’t always. Different Muslim groups have different views about the necessity of violence. And some see jihad more in terms of missionary activity.
The greater jihad, Newby says, involves a personal struggle against the evil influences within oneself. Just as in other religions we hear about “spiritual warfare,” this type of jihad is about combating evil within the self.
A third type of jihad, mentioned at Wikipedia, involves the struggle to make society better. And some say that any kind of righteous struggle can be a “jihad” of sorts. For instance, some called Mahatma Gandhi’s struggle against British colonialism a “jihad.”
For more on this controversial concept, see Newby’s entry for jihad in A Concise Encyclopedia of Islam (pdf).
† Newby doesn’t qualify this idea. But most would say that the understanding of “evil” is something that can be influenced by human bias.
- The Doctrine of an-Nasikh wa’l Mansukh: Abrogation in the Qur’an and the Idea of a Hijacked Religion (everythingislam.wordpress.com)
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- Know Islam (maldivianapostates.wordpress.com)
- “Bin Laden And The Greater Jihad” and related posts (indi.ca)
- Money worries? A little light jihad could be the answer, says mad Muslim cleric (freethinker.co.uk)
- Does jihad ever justify terrorism and why (wiki.answers.com)
- Op-Ed: A new day for the Muslim-American community (kashifmd.wordpress.com)
- Muslim Women Stand Up! (qilma.wordpress.com)
- Muslim Jihad in Christian Ethiopia | Catholic Lane (deaconjohnspace.wordpress.com)
- Mohammad Not A Muslim (paulmarcelrene.wordpress.com)